- Research Article
- Open Access
Fast Burst Synchronization for Power Line Communication Systems
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing volume 2007, Article number: 012145 (2007)
Fast burst synchronization is an important requirement in asynchronous communication networks, where devices transmit short data packets in an unscheduled fashion. Such a synchronization is typically achieved by means of a preamble sent in front of the data packet. In this paper, we study fast burst synchronization for power line communication (PLC) systems operating below 500 kHz and transmitting data rates of up to about 500 kbps as it is typical in various PLC network applications. In particular, we are concerned with the receiver processing of the preamble signal and the actual design of preambles suitable for fast burst synchronization in such PLC systems. Our approach is comprehensive in that it takes into account the most distinctive characteristics of the power line channel, which are multipath propagation, highly varying path loss, and disturbance by impulse noise, as well as important practical constraints, especially the need for spectral shaping of the preamble signal and fast adjustment of the automatic gain control (AGC). In fact, we regard the explicit incorporation of these various requirements into the preamble design as the main contribution of this work. We devise an optimization criterion and a stochastic algorithm to search for suitable preamble sequences. A comprehensive performance comparison of a designed and two conventional preambles shows that the designed sequence is superior in terms of (a) fast burst synchronization in various transmission environments, (b) fast AGC adjustment, and (c) compliance of its spectrum with the spectral mask applied to the data transmit signal.
Massey J: Optimum frame synchronization. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1972,20(2):115-119. 10.1109/TCOM.1972.1091127
Scholtz R: Frame synchronization techniques. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1980,28(8, part 2):1204-1213. 10.1109/TCOM.1980.1094813
Fechtel SA, Meyr H: Fast frame synchronization, frequency offset estimation and channel acquisition for spontaneous transmission over unknown frequency-selective radio channels. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '93), September 1993, Yokohama, Japan 229–233.
IEEE 802.11a : Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: High-Speed Physical Layer in the 5 GHz Band. 1999.
IEEE 802.15.3 : Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for High Rate Wireless PANs. 2003.
Lee MK, Newman RE, Latchman HA, Katar S, Yonge L: HomePlug 1.0 powerline communication LANs—protocol description and performance results. International Journal of Communication Systems 2003,16(5):447-473. 10.1002/dac.601
Müller-Weinfurtner S: OFDM for Wireless Communications: Nyquist Windowing, Peak-Power Reduction, and Synchronization. Shaker, Aachen, Germany; 2000.
Pavlidou N, Han Vinck AJ, Yazdani J, Honary B: Power line communications: state of the art and future trends. IEEE Communications Magazine 2003,41(4):34-40. 10.1109/MCOM.2003.1193972
Bumiller G, Sauter T, Pratl G, Treytl A: Secure and reliable wide-area power-line communication for soft-real-time applications within REMPLI. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '05), April 2005, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada 57–60.
Shwehdi MH, Khan AZ: A power line data communication interface using spread spectrum technology in home automation. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 1996,11(3):1232-1237. 10.1109/61.517476
van Rensburg P, Ferreira H: Automotive power-line communications: favourable topology for future automotive electronic trends. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Power-Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '03), March 2003, Kyoto, Japan 103–108.
Zimmermann M, Dostert K: A multipath model for the powerline channel. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2002,50(4):553-559. 10.1109/26.996069
Eriksson M: Dynamic single frequency networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2001,19(10):1905-1914. 10.1109/49.957306
Bumiller G: Single frequency network technology for medium access and network management. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Power-Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '02), March 2002, Athens, Greece
Corripio FJC, Arrabal JAC, Del Río LD, Muñoz JTE: Analysis of the cyclic short-term variation of indoor power line channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2006,24(7):1327-1338.
Barmada S, Musolino A, Raugi M: Innovative model for time-varying power line communication channel response evaluation. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2006,24(7):1317-1325.
Zimmermann M, Dostert K: Analysis and modeling of impulsive noise in broad-band powerline communications. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility 2002,44(1):249-258. 10.1109/15.990732
Golomb S, Scholtz R: Generalized Barker sequences. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1965,11(4):533-537. 10.1109/TIT.1965.1053828
Friese M: Polyphase Barker sequences up to length 36. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1996,42(4):1248-1250. 10.1109/18.508850
Milewski A: Periodic sequences with optimal properties for channel estimation and fast start-up equalization. IBM Journal of Research and Development 1983,27(5):426-431.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) : EN 50065-1: Signaling on Low-Voltage Electrical Installations in the Frequency Range 3 kHz-148.5 kHz. 2001.
Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB), "STD-T84: Power Line Communication Equipment (10 kHz-450 kHz)", 2002
Federal Communication Commission (FCC) : ET Docket 04-37, FCC 04-245. October 2004
Bumiller G, Deinzer M: Narrow band power-line chipset for telecommunication and Internet application. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Power-Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '01), April 2001, Malmö, Sweden 353–358.
Khoury JM: On the design of constant settling time AGC circuits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing 1998,45(3):283-294. 10.1109/82.664234
Antweiler M, Bömer L: Merit factor of Chu and Frank sequences. Electronics Letters 1990,26(25):2068-2070. 10.1049/el:19901334
Jeon W-G, You Y-H, Kim J-T, et al.: Timing synchronization for IEEE 802.15.3 WPAN applications. IEEE Communications Letters 2005,9(3):255-257. 10.1109/LCOMM.2005.03013
Kocabaş SE, Atalar A: Binary sequences with low aperiodic autocorrelation for synchronization purposes. IEEE Communications Letters 2003,7(1):36-38. 10.1109/LCOMM.2002.807438
Warner WD, Leung C: OFDM/FM frame synchronization for mobile radio data communication. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1993,42(3):302-313. 10.1109/25.231882
Üreten O, Tascioglu S, Serinken N, Yilmaz M: Search for OFDM synchronization waveforms with good aperiodic autocorrelations. Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE '04), May 2004, Niagara Falls, Canada 1: 13–18.
van Trees HL: Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory—Part I. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 2001.
Bumiller G: Verification of single frequency network transmission with laboratory measurements. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '06), March 2006, Orlando, Fla, USA 27–32.
Benedetto JJ, Ryan JF: Software Package for CAZAC Code Generators and Doppler Shift Analysis. 2004.https://doi.org/www.math.umd.edu/jjb/cazac
Popovic BM: Generalized chirp-like polyphase sequences with optimum correlation properties. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1992,38(4):1406-1409. 10.1109/18.144727
Barrett M: Error probability for optimal and suboptimal quadratic receivers in rapid Rayleigh fading channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1987,5(2):302-304. 10.1109/JSAC.1987.1146519
Brehler M, Varanasi MK: Asymptotic error probability analysis of quadratic receivers in Rayleigh-fading channels with applications to a unified analysis of coherent and noncoherent space-time receivers. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2001,47(6):2383-2399. 10.1109/18.945253
Schwartz M, Bennett W, Stein S: Communication Systems and Techniques. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA; 1966.
Biglieri E, Caire G, Taricco G, Ventura-Traveset J: Computing error probabilities over fading channels: a unified approach. European Transactions on Telecommunications 1998,9(1):15-25. 10.1002/ett.4460090103
About this article
Cite this article
Bumiller, G., Lampe, L. Fast Burst Synchronization for Power Line Communication Systems. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 012145 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/12145
- Data Packet
- Impulse Noise
- Automatic Gain Control
- Transmit Data Rate
- Asynchronous Communication