- Research Article
- Open Access
The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing volume 2007, Article number: 027421 (2007)
Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths). This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.
Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé : Les clés du "bien vieillir": prévention des chutes chez les seniors. Caisse Nationale de l'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés, p. 20, 2001
Brauer SG, Burns YR, Galley P: A prospective study of laboratory and clinical measures of postural stability to predict community-dwelling fallers. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2000,55(8):M469-M476. 10.1093/gerona/55.8.M469
Maki BE, Holliday PJ, Topper AK: A prospective study of postural balance and risk of falling in an ambulatory and independent elderly population. Journal of Gerontology 1994,49(2):M72-M84.
Raîche M, Hébert R, Prince F, Corriveau H: Screening older adults at risk of falling with the Tinetti balance scale. The Lancet 2000,356(9234):1001-1002. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02695-7
Tromp AM, Pluijm SMF, Smit JH, Deeg DJH, Bouter LM, Lips P: Fall-risk screening test: a prospective study on predictors for falls in community-dwelling elderly. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2001,54(8):837-844. 10.1016/S0895-4356(01)00349-3
Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR: The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 2002,18(2):141-158. 10.1016/S0749-0690(02)00002-2
Nevitt MC, Cummings SR, Kidd S, Black D: Risk factors for recurrent nonsyncopal falls. A prospective study. The Journal of the American Medical Association 1989,261(18):2663-2668. 10.1001/jama.261.18.2663
Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF: Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine 1988,319(26):1701-1707. 10.1056/NEJM198812293192604
Vellas BJ, Wayne SJ, Romero L, Baumgartner RN, Rubenstein LZ, Garry PJ: One-leg balance is an important predictor of injurious falls in older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1997,45(6):735-738.
Wood BH, Bilclough JA, Bowron A, Walker RW: Incidence and prediction of falls in Parkinson's disease: a prospective multidisciplinary study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2002,72(6):721-725. 10.1136/jnnp.72.6.721
Allum JHJ, Bloem BR, Carpenter MG, Honegger F: Differential diagnosis of proprioceptive and vestibular deficits using dynamic support-surface posturography. Gait & Posture 2001,14(3):217-226. 10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00142-4
Gill J, Allum JHJ, Carpenter MG, et al.: Trunk sway measures of postural stability during clinical balance tests: effects of age. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2001,56(7):M438-M447. 10.1093/gerona/56.7.M438
Lord SR, Menz HB: Visual contributions to postural stability in older adults. Gerontology 2000,46(6):306-310. 10.1159/000022182
Mathias S, Nayak USL, Isaacs B: Balance in elderly patients: the "get-up and go" test. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1986,67(6):387-389.
Shumway-Cook A, Baldwin M, Polissar NL, Gruber W: Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults. Physical Therapy 1997,77(8):812-819.
Lord SR, Clark RD, Webster IW: Postural stability and associated physiological factors in a population of aged persons. Journal of Gerontology 1991,46(3):M69-76.
Thapa PB, Gideon P, Brockman KG, Fought RL, Ray WA: Clinical and biomechanical measures of balance as fall predictors in ambulatory nursing home residents. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 1996,51(5):M239-M246.
Niyogi SA, Adelson EH: Analyzing and recognizing walking figures in XYT. Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR '94), June 1994, Seattle, Wash, USA 469–474.
Huang PS, Harris CJ, Nixon MS: Comparing different template features for recognizing people by their gait. Proceedings of the 9th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVA '98), September 1998, Southampton, UK 2: 639–648.
Kale A, Rajagopalan AN, Cuntoor N, Kruger V: Gait-based recognition of humans using continuous HMMs. Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, May 2002, Washington, DC, USA 321–326.
Meyer D: Human gait classification based on hidden Markov model. 3D Image Analysis and Synthesis, November 1997, Sankt Augustin, Germany 139–146.
Ben Abdelkader C, Cutler R, Davis LS: View-invariant estimation of height and stride for gait recognition. Proceedings of the International European Conference on Computer Vision Workshop Copenhagen on Biometric Authentication, June 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark 155–167.
Boulgouris NV, Plataniotis KN, Hatzinakos D: Gait recognition using linear time normalization. Pattern Recognition 2006,39(5):969-979. 10.1016/j.patcog.2005.10.013
Liu Y, Collins R, Tsin Y: Gait sequence analysis using Frieze patterns. In Tech. Rep. CMU-RI-TR-01-38. Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA; 2001.
Close J, Ellis M, Hooper R, Glucksman E, Jackson S, Swift C: Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 1999,353(9147):93-97. 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)06119-4
Cumming RG, Thomas M, Szonyi G, et al.: Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards: a randomized trial of falls prevention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999,47(12):1397-1402.
Buchner DM, Cress ME, de Lateur BJ, et al.: The effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, fall risk, and health services use in community-living older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 1997,52(4):M218-M224.
Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T: Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1996,44(5):489-497.
Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Buchner DM: Falls prevention over 2 years: a randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older. Age and Ageing 1999,28(6):513-518. 10.1093/ageing/28.6.513
Robertson MC, Devlin N, Scuffham P, Gardner MM, Buchner DM, Campbell AJ: Economic evaluation of a community based exercise programme to prevent falls. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2001,55(8):600-606. 10.1136/jech.55.8.600
Myers AH, Young Y, Langlois JA: Prevention of falls in the elderly. Bone 1996,18(1, supplement 1):87S-101S. 10.1016/8756-3282(95)00384-3
Rizzo JA, Friedkin R, Williams CS, Nabors J, Acampora D, Tinetti ME: Health care utilization and costs in a Medicare population by fall status. Medical Care 1998,36(8):1174-1188. 10.1097/00005650-199808000-00006
Whitney SL, Marchetti GF, Schade AI: The relationship between falls history and computerized dynamic posturography in persons with balance and vestibular disorders. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006,87(3):402-407. 10.1016/j.apmr.2005.11.002
Zachazewski JE, Riley PO, Krebs DE: Biomechanical analysis of body mass transfer during stair ascent and descent of healthy subjects. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 1993,30(4):412-422.
Stacoff A, Diezi C, Luder G, Stüssi E, Kramers-de Quervain IA: Ground reaction forces on stairs: effects of stair inclination and age. Gait & Posture 2005,21(1):24-38. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2003.11.003
Begg RK, Sparrow WA: Gait characteristics of young and older individuals negotiating a raised surface: implications for the prevention of falls. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2000,55(3):M147-M154. 10.1093/gerona/55.3.M147
Hamel KA, Okita N, Higginson JS, Cavanagh PR: Foot clearance during stair descent: effects of age and illumination. Gait & Posture 2005,21(2):135-140. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.01.006
McFadyen BJ, Winter DA: An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. Journal of Biomechanics 1988,21(9):733-744. 10.1016/0021-9290(88)90282-5
Laufer Y: Effect of age on characteristics of forward and backward gait at preferred and accelerated walking speed. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2005,60(5):627-632. 10.1093/gerona/60.5.627
Prieto TE, Myklebust JB, Hoffmann RG, Lovett EG, Myklebust BM: Measures of postural steadiness: differences between healthy young and elderly adults. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 1996,43(9):956-966. 10.1109/10.532130
Collins JJ, De Luca CJ: Open-loop and closed-loop control of posture: a random-walk analysis of center-of-pressure trajectories. Experimental Brain Research 1993,95(2):308-318.
Delignières D, Deschamps T, Legros A, Caillou N: A methodological note on nonlinear time series analysis: is the open- and closed-loop model of Collins and De Luca (1993) a statistical artifact? Journal of Motor Behavior 2003,35(1):86-96. 10.1080/00222890309602124
Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Peng C-K, Stanley HE: Fractal dynamics in physiology: aterations with disease and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002,99(1):2466-2472. 10.1073/pnas.012579499
Peng CK, Havlin S, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL: Quantification of scaling exponents and crossover phenomena in nonstationary heartbeat time series. Chaos 1995,5(1):82-87. 10.1063/1.166141
Eke A, Herman P, Kocsis L, Kozak LR: Fractal characterization of complexity in temporal physiological signals. Physiological Measurement 2002,23(1):R1-R38. 10.1088/0967-3334/23/1/201
Shrout PE, Fleiss JL: Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin 1979,86(2):420-428.
Norris JA, Marsh AP, Smith IJ, Kohut RI, Miller ME: Ability of static and statistical mechanics posturographic measures to distinguish between age and fall risk. Journal of Biomechanics 2005,38(6):1263-1272. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.06.014
Nadeau S, McFadyen BJ, Malouin F: Frontal and sagittal plane analyses of the stair climbing task in healthy adults aged over 40 years: what are the challenges compared to level walking? Clinical Biomechanics 2003,18(10):950-959. 10.1016/S0268-0033(03)00179-7
Gélat T, Brenière Y: Adaptation of the gait initiation process for stepping on to a new level using a single step. Experimental Brain Research 2000,133(4):538-546. 10.1007/s002210000452
Michel V, Amoud H, Hewson DJ, Hogrel J-Y, Duchêne J: The effect of age on dynamic postural equilibrium when stepping up. Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the International Society for Postural and Gait Research (ISPGR '05), May-June 2005, Marseille, France
Michel V, Hewson DJ, Hogrel J-Y, Duchêne J: Analysis of postural dynamic equilibrium in elderly subjects descending a stair backwards. Proceedings of the 3rd European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC): Advancement of Medicine and Health Care through Technology, November 2005, Prague, Czech Republic
Fleiss JL: The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1986.
Lafond D, Corriveau H, Hébert R, Prince F: Intrasession reliability of center of pressure measures of postural steadiness in healthy elderly people. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2004,85(6):896-901. 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.08.089
Du Pasquier RA, Blanc Y, Sinnreich M, Landis T, Burkhard P, Vingerhoets FJG: The effect of aging on postural stability: a cross sectional and longitudinal study. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 2003,33(5):213-218. 10.1016/j.neucli.2003.09.001
Chiari L, Cappello A, Lenzi D, Della Croce U: An improved technique for the extraction of stochastic parameters from stabilograms. Gait & Posture 2000,12(3):225-234. 10.1016/S0966-6362(00)00086-2
Corriveau H, Hébert R, Prince F, Raîche M: Postural control in the elderly: an analysis of test-retest and interrater reliability of the COP-COM variable. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001,82(1):80-85. 10.1053/apmr.2001.18678
Schölkopf B, Platt JC, Shawe-Taylor J, Smola AJ, Williamson RC: Estimating the support of a high-dimensional distribution. Neural Computation 2001,13(7):1443-1471. 10.1162/089976601750264965
Scholkopf B, Williamson RC, Smola AJ, Shawe-Taylor J, Platt JC: Support vector method for novelty detection. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. Volume 12. MIT Press, Cambridege, Mass, USA; 2000:582-588.
Tax DMJ: One-class classification, Ph.D. thesis. Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands; 2001.
Tax DMJ, Duin RPW: Support vector domain description. Pattern Recognition Letters 1999,20(11–13):1191-1199.
Tax DMJ, Duin RPW: Support vector data description. Machine Learning 2004,54(1):45-66.
Vapnik VN: Statistical Learning Theory. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1998.
Michel-Pelligrino V, Amoud H, Hewson DJ, Duchêne J: Identification of a degradation in postural equilibrium invoked by different vibration frequencies on the tibialis anterior tendon. Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS '06), August 2006, New York, NY, USA 4047–4050.
Saboune J, Charpillet F: Using interval particle filtering for marker less 3D human motion capture. Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI '05), November 2005, Hong Kong 621–627.
Deutscher J, Blake A, Reid I: Articulated body motion capture by annealed particle filtering. Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR '00), June 2000, Hilton Head Island, SC, USA 2: 126–133.
Hausdorff JM, Ashkenazy Y, Peng C-K, Ivanov PCh, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL: When human walking becomes random walking: fractal analysis and modeling of gait rhythm fluctuations. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 2001,302(1–4):138-147.
Herman T, Giladi N, Gurevich T, Hausdorff JM: Gait instability and fractal dynamics of older adults with a "cautious" gait: why do certain older adults walk fearfully? Gait & Posture 2005,21(2):178-185. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.01.014
Doussot M, Hewson DJ, Duchêne J: A remote monitoring system for assessing balance quality. Proceedings of the 3rd European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC): Advancement of Medicine and Health Care through Technology, November 2005, Prague, Czech Republic
Amoud H, Abadi M, Michel V, Hewson DJ, Doussot M, Duchêne J: Evaluation de l'équilibre postural suite à la réalisation d'un pas selon trois méthodes d'estimation de l'exposant de Hurst. 20e colloque GRETSI sur le traitement du signal et des images (GRETSI '05), September 2005, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belguim
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Hewson, D.J., Duchêne, J., Charpillet, F. et al. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 027421 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/27421
- Public Health
- Health Problem
- Information Technology
- Quantum Information
- Public Health Problem