Skip to main content

Efficient Hybrid DCT-Domain Algorithm for Video Spatial Downscaling

Abstract

A highly efficient video downscaling algorithm for any arbitrary integer scaling factor performed in a hybrid pixel transform domain is proposed. This algorithm receives the encoded DCT coefficient blocks of the input video sequence and efficiently computes the DCT coefficients of the scaled video stream. The involved steps are properly tailored so that all operations are performed using the encoding standard block structure, independently of the adopted scaling factor. As a result, the proposed algorithm offers a significant optimization of the computational cost without compromising the output video quality, by taking into account the scaling mechanism and by restricting the involved operations in order to avoid useless computations. In order to meet any system needs, an optional and possible combination of the presented algorithm with high-order AC frequency DCT coefficients discarding techniques is also proposed, providing a flexible and often required complexity scalability feature and giving rise to an adaptable tradeoff between the involved scalable computational cost and the resulting video quality and bit rate. Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm provides significant advantages over the usual DCT decimation approaches, both in terms of the involved computational cost, the output video quality, and the resulting bit rate. Such advantages are even more significant for scaling factors other than integer powers of 2 and may lead to quite high PSNR gains.

References

  1. 1.

    Assunção PAA, Ghanbari M: A frequency-domain video transcoder for dynamic bit-rate reduction of MPEG-2 bit streams. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1998,8(8):953-967. 10.1109/76.736724

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ahmad I, Wei X, Sun Y, Zhang Y-Q: Video transcoding: an overview of various techniques and research issues. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 2005,7(5):793-804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Xin J, Lin C-W, Sun M-T: Digital video transcoding. Proceedings of the IEEE 2005,93(1):84-97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Roma N, Sousa L: Least squares motion estimation algorithm in the compressed DCT domain for H.26x/MPEG-x video sequences. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS '05), September 2005, Como, Italy 576–581.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Zhu W, Yang KH, Beacken MJ: CIF-to-QCIF video bitstream down-conversion in the DCT domain. Bell Labs Technical Journal 1998,3(3):21-29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Shanableh T, Ghanbari M: Heterogeneous video transcoding to lower spatio-temporal resolutions and different encoding formats. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 2000,2(2):101-110. 10.1109/6046.845014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Shu H, Chau L-P: An efficient arbitrary downsizing algorithm for video transcoding. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2004,14(6):887-891. 10.1109/TCSVT.2004.828327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lee Y-R, Lin C-W, Yeh S-H, Chen Y-C: Low-complexity DCT-domain video transcoders for arbitrary-size downscaling. IEEE 6th Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP '04), September -October 2004, Siena, Italy 31–34.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Salazar CL, Tran TD: On resizing images in the DCT domain. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 4: 2797–2800.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Park YS, Park HW: Arbitrary-ratio image resizing using fast DCT of composite length for DCT-based transcoder. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2006,15(2):494-500.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Shu H, Chau L-P: A resizing algorithm with two-stage realization for DCT-based transcoding. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2007,17(2):248-253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shanableh T, Ghanbari M: Hybrid DCT/pixel domain architecture for heterogeneous video transcoding. Signal Processing: Image Communication 2003,18(8):601-620. special issue on multimedia adaptation 10.1016/S0923-5965(03)00055-9

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Li H, Shi H: A fast algorithm for reconstructing motion-compensated blocks in compressed domain. Journal of Visual Languages & Computing 1999,10(6):607-623. 10.1006/jvlc.1999.0149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lin C-W, Lee Y-R: Fast algorithms for DCT-domain video transcoding. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '01), October 2001, Thessaloniki, Greece 1: 421–424.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Liu S, Bovik AC: Local bandwidth constrained fast inverse motion compensation for DCT-domain video transcoding. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002,12(5):309-319. 10.1109/TCSVT.2002.1003470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Natarajan B, Vasudev B: A fast approximate algorithm for scaling down digital images in the DCT domain. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '95), October 1995, Washington, DC, USA 2: 241–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Yin P, Vetro A, Liu B, Sun H: Drift compensation for reduced spatial resolution transcoding. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002,12(11):1009-1020. 10.1109/TCSVT.2002.805509

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Martucci SA: Image resizing in the discrete cosine transform domain. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '95), October 1995, Washington, DC, USA 2: 244–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Chang S-F, Messerschmitt DG: Manipulation and compositing of MC-DCT compressed video. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1995,13(1):1-11. 10.1109/49.363151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Merhav N, Bhaskaran V: Fast algorithms for DCT-domain image down-sampling and for inverse motion compensation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1997,7(3):468-476. 10.1109/76.585926

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Shen B, Sethi IK: Block-based manipulations on transform-compressed images and videos. Multimedia Systems 1998,6(2):113-124. 10.1007/s005300050080

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hu Q, Panchanathan S: Image/video spatial scalability in compressed domain. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 1998,45(1):23-31. 10.1109/41.661301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Dugad R, Ahuja N: A fast scheme for image size change in the compressed domain. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2001,11(4):461-474. 10.1109/76.915353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Lee Y-R, Lin C-W, Kao C-C: A DCT-domain video transcoder for spatial resolution downconversion. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Visual Information Systems (VISUAL '02), March 2002, Hsin Chu, Taiwan 207–218.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Ridge J: Efficient transform-domain size and resolution reduction of images. Signal Processing: Image Communication 2003,18(8 ):621-639. 10.1016/S0923-5965(03)00056-0

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lee Y-, Lin C-: DCT-domain spatial transcoding using generalized DCT decimation. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '05), September 2005, Genoa, Italy 1: 821–824.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Patil V, Kumar R, Mukherjee J: A fast arbitrary factor video resizing algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2006,16(9):1164-1171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    ITU-T. ITU-T Recommendation H.263 : Video coding for low bitrate communication. 1998.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nuno Roma.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Roma, N., Sousa, L. Efficient Hybrid DCT-Domain Algorithm for Video Spatial Downscaling. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 057291 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/57291

Download citation

Keywords

  • Video Quality
  • High PSNR
  • Efficient Video
  • Coefficient Block
  • PSNR Gain