- Research Article
- Open Access
Comparison of Error Protection Methods for Audio-Video Broadcast over DVB-H
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processingvolume 2007, Article number: 071801 (2007)
The paper discusses methods for robust audio-video broadcast over the digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) system. DVB-H includes a link-layer forward error correction (FEC) scheme known as multiprotocol encapsulation (MPE) FEC, which provides equal error protection (EEP) to the transmitted media streams. Several approaches for unequal error protection (UEP) have been proposed in the literature, and the applicability of some of them to DVB-H is analyzed in the paper. A link-layer UEP method based on priority segmentation of the media streams is chosen for more detailed analysis. According to the method, audio and the most important coded video pictures are protected by MPE-FEC more robustly compared to the remaining coded pictures. In order to compare EEP and UEP in a DVB-H environment, an error-prone DVB-H channel was simulated, audio-visual clips were sent through it, and a comprehensive subjective quality evaluation was conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The results of the subjective evaluation revealed that the use of UEP improves the subjective quality of some test clips noticeably when the channel conditions were severe, while in other tested channel conditions and clips, UEP and EEP performed equally well.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) : Digital video broadcasting (DVB); transmission system for handheld terminals (DVB-H). European Standard EN 302 304, version 1.1.1, November 2004
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) : Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television. ETSI standard, EN 300 744, 2001
ISO/IEC 13818-1 : Information technology—generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: systems. 1994.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) : Digital video broadcasting (DVB); DVB specification for data broadcasting. European Standard EN 301 192, version 1.4.1, November 2004
Reed IS, Solomon G: Polynomial codes over certain finite fields. SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics 1960,8(2):300-304. 10.1137/0108018
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) : Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); specification for the use of video and audio coding in DVB services delivered directly over IP protocols. European standard TS 102 005 V1.2.1, November 2005
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/International Engineering Consortium (IEC) : Information technology—generic coding of moving picture and associated audio information—part 3: audio. International Standard 14496-3 (2001), including "Bandwidth Extension," International Standard 14496-3 AMD-1 (2001) and "Parametric Coding for High Quality Audio," International Standard 14496-3 AMD-2 (2004)
Telecommunication Standardization Sector of International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) : Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services. Recommendation H.264, March 2005
Tian D, Hannuksela MM, Gabbouj M: Sub-sequence video coding for improved temporal scalability. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '05), May 2005, Kobe, Japan 6: 6074–6077.
Aaltonen J, Pekonen H, Auranen T, Laiho K, Talmola P: Power saving considerations in mobile datacasting terminals. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, September 2002, Erfurt, Germany F43-F48.
Wenger S, Hannuksela MM, Stockhammer T, Westerlund M, Singer D: RTP Payload Format for H.264 Video. IETF RFC 3984, February 2005
Schierl T, Kampmann M, Wiegand T: H.264/AVC interleaving for 3G wireless video streaming. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '05), July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 868–871.
Schierl T, Wiegand T, Kampmann M: 3GPP compliant adaptive wireless video streaming using H.264/AVC. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '05), September 2005, Genova, Italy 3: 696–699.
Albanese A, Blömer J, Edmonds J, Luby M, Sudan M: Priority encoding transmission. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1996,42(6, part 1):1737-1744. 10.1109/18.556670
Leicher C: Hierarchical encoding of MPEG sequences using priority encoding transmission (PET). In Tech. Rep. TR-94-058. International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, Calif, USA; 1994.
Horn U, Stuhlmüller K, Link M, Girod B: Robust internet video transmission based on scalable coding and unequal error protection. Signal Processing: Image Communication 1999,15(1–2):77-94. 10.1016/S0923-5965(99)00025-9
Rosenberg J, Schulzrinne H: An RTP payload format for generic forward error correction. Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments 2733, December 1999
Li AH: RTP payload format for generic forward error correction. Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Draft draft-ietf-avt-ulp-18.txt, June 2006
Tian D, Malamal Vadakital VK, Hannuksela MM, Wenger S, Gabbouj M: Improved H.264/AVC video broadcast /multicast. Visual Communications and Image Processing 2005, July 2005, Beijing, China, Proceedings of SPIE 5960: 71–82.
Malamal Vadakital VK, Hannuksela MM, Rezaei M, Gabbouj M: Method for unequal error protection in DVB-H for mobile television. Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '06), September 2006, Helsinki, Finland 1–5.
Malamal Vadakital VK, Hannuksela MM, Pekkonen H, Gabbouj M: On datacasting of H.264/AVC over DVB-H. Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, October 2005, Shanghai, China 1–4.
Girod B: Psychovisual aspects of image communication. Signal Processing 1992,28(3):239-251. 10.1016/0165-1684(92)90042-U
International Telecommunications Union—Radiocommunication sector : Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures. ITU-R BT.500-11, 2002
International Telecommunications Union—Telecommunication sector : Subjective video quality assessment methods for multimedia applications. ITU-T P.910, 1999
Rogers EM: Diffusion of Innovation. 5th edition. Free Press, New York, NY, USA; 2003.
Jumisko-Pyykkö S, Häkkinen J: Evaluation of subjective video quality on mobile devices. Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, November 2005, Singapore 535–538.
Winkler S, Faller C: Maximizing audiovisual quality at low bitrates. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics (VPQM '05), January 2005, Scottsdale, Ariz, USA
Gilbert EN: Capacity of a burst-noise channel. Bell Systems Technical Journal 1960, 39: 1253–1265.
Poikonen J, Paavola J: Comparison of finite-state models for simulating the DVB-H link layer performance. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems Conference (ISWCS '05), September 2005, Siena, Italy 153–157.
Jumisko-Pyykkö S, Malamal Vadakital VK, Liinasuo M, Hannuksela MM: Acceptance of audiovisual quality in erroneous television sequences over a DVB-H channel. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics (VPQM '06), January 2006, Scottsdale, Ariz, USA 1–5.
Faria G, Henriksson JA, Stare E, Talmola P: DVB-H: digital broadcast services to handheld devices. Proceedings of the IEEE 2006,94(1):194-209.
Ishihara's tests for color deficiency 24 Plates edition. Tokyo, Kanehara trading INC, 2005
International Standardization Organization : Visual acuity testing. ISO 8596, 1994
International Standardization Organization : Audiometric test methods. ISO 8523-1-2, 1989
International Standardization Organization : ISO Standards Handbook 35. Acoustics. 1st edition, p. 386. Switzerland, 1990
International Standardization Organization : Statistical distribution of hearing threshold. ISO 7029 SFS-EN Acoustics, 2000
Coolican H: Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology. 4th edition. J. W. Arrowsmith, London, UK; 2004.