Skip to content

Advertisement

Open Access

3D Game Content Distributed Adaptation in Heterogeneous Environments

  • Francisco Morán1Email author,
  • Marius Preda2,
  • Gauthier Lafruit3,
  • Paulo Villegas4 and
  • Robert-Paul Berretty5
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20072007:093027

https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/93027

Received: 31 August 2006

Accepted: 5 July 2007

Published: 17 September 2007

Abstract

Most current multiplayer 3D games can only be played on a single dedicated platform (a particular computer, console, or cell phone), requiring specifically designed content and communication over a predefined network. Below we show how, by using signal processing techniques such as multiresolution representation and scalable coding for all the components of a 3D graphics object (geometry, texture, and animation), we enable online dynamic content adaptation, and thus delivery of the same content over heterogeneous networks to terminals with very different profiles, and its rendering on them. We present quantitative results demonstrating how the best displayed quality versus computational complexity versus bandwidth tradeoffs have been achieved, given the distributed resources available over the end-to-end content delivery chain. Additionally, we use state-of-the-art, standardised content representation and compression formats (MPEG-4 AFX, JPEG 2000, XML), enabling deployment over existing infrastructure, while keeping hooks to well-established practices in the game industry.

Keywords

Cell PhoneHeterogeneous EnvironmentHeterogeneous NetworkContent AdaptationContent Representation

[123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
(2)
Département ARTEMIS, Institut National des Télécommunications, Évry, France
(3)
DESICS, Interuniversitair Micro Electronica Centrum, Leuven, Belgium
(4)
Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, Boecillo, Spain
(5)
Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

References

  1. Apperley TH: Genre and game studies: toward a critical approach to video game genres. Simulation & Gaming 2006,37(1):6-23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 : Standard 14496-16. 2004.Google Scholar
  3. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 2004.Google Scholar
  4. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Core Working Group : XML 1.0 (4th ed.). 2006.http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-20060816/ W3C (World Wide Web Con-sortium),Google Scholar
  5. Said A, Pearlman WA: A new, fast, and efficient image codec based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1996,6(3):243-250. 10.1109/76.499834View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Khodakovsky A, Schröder P, Sweldens W: Progressive geometry compression. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '00), July 2000, New Orleans, La, USA. ACM; 271-278.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Morán F: Modelado jerárquico de objetos 3D con superficies de subdivisión, Ph.D. thesis. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 2001. http://www.gti.ssr.upm.es./~fmb/pub/PhD.pdf.gzGoogle Scholar
  8. Morán F, García N: Comparison of wavelet-based three-dimensional model coding techniques. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2004,14(7):937-949. 10.1109/TCSVT.2004.830663View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Avilés M, Morán F, García N: Progressive lower trees of wavelet coefficients: efficient spatial and SNR scalable coding of 3D models. In Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia (PCM '05), November 2005, Jeju Island, Korea, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 3767. Springer; 61-72.Google Scholar
  10. Tack N, Lafruit G, Catthoor F, Lauwereins R: Eliminating CPU overhead for on-the-fly content adaptation with MPEG-4 wavelet subdivision surfaces. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 2006,52(2):559-565. 10.1109/TCE.2006.1649680View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Tack K, Lafruit G, Catthoor F, Lauwereins R: Platform independent optimisation of multi-resolution 3D content to enable universal media access. The Visual Computer 2006,22(8):577-590. 10.1007/s00371-006-0036-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee AWF, Sweldens W, Schröder P, Cowsar L, Dobkin D: MAPS: multiresolution adaptive parameterization of surfaces. In Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '98), July 1998, Orlando, Fla, USA. ACM; 95-104.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Tack N, Morán F, Lafruit G, Lauwereins R: 3D graphics rendering time modeling and control for mobile terminals. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, April 2004, Monterey, Calif, USA. ACM; 109-117.Google Scholar
  14. Wimmer M, Wonka P: Rendering time estimation for real-time rendering. Proceedings of the 14th Eurographics workshop on Rendering, June 2003, Leuven, Belgium 118-129.Google Scholar
  15. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 : Standard 14496-2. 1999.Google Scholar
  16. Bormans J, Ngoc NP, Deconinck G, Lafruit G: Terminal QoS: advanced resource management for cost-effective multimedia appliances in dynamic contexts. In Ambient Intelligence: Impact on Embedded System Design. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Mass, USA; 2003:183-201.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Ngoc PN, Lafruit G, Mignolet JY, Vernalde S, Deconick G, Lauwereins R: A framework for mapping scalable networked applications on run-time reconfigurable platforms. Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '03), July 2003, Baltimore, Md, USA 1: 469-472.Google Scholar
  18. Jang ES, Kim JDK, Jung SY, Han M-J, Woo SO, Lee S-J: Interpolator data compression for MPEG-4 animation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2004,14(7):989-1008. 10.1109/TCSVT.2004.830670View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 : Standard 14496-2/AMD1. 2000.Google Scholar
  20. Preda M, Prêteux F: Critic review on MPEG-4 face and body animation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '02), September 2002, Rochester, NY, USA 3: 505-508.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Endo M, Yasuda T, Yokoi S: A distributed multiuser virtual space system. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 2003,23(1):50-57. 10.1109/MCG.2003.1159613View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Hijiri T, Nishitani K, Cornish T, Naka T, Asahara S: Spatial hierarchical compression method for 3D streaming animation. In Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Virtual Reality Modeling Language (Web3D-VRML '00), February 2000, Monterey, Calif, USA. ACM; 95-101.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Chattopadhyay S, Bhandarkar SM, Li K: Virtual people & scalable worlds: efficient compression and delivery of stored motion data for avatar animation in resource constrained devices. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST '05), November 2005, Monterey, Calif, USA. ACM; 235-243.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Preda M, Prêteux F: Virtual character within MPEG-4 animation framework eXtension. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2004,14(7):975-988. 10.1109/TCSVT.2004.830661View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Preda M, Tran S, Prêteux F: Adaptation of quadric metric simplification to MPEG-4 animated object. In Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia (PCM '05), November 2005, Jeju Island, Korea, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 3767. Springer; 49-60.Google Scholar
  26. Garland M, Heckbert PS: Surface simplification using quadric error metrics. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '97), August 1997, Los Angeles, Calif, USA. ACM; 209-216.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. IEEE : Standard 1278.1a for Distributed Interactive Simulation—Application Protocols. 1998.Google Scholar
  28. Dahmann JS, Fujimoto RM, Weatherly RM: Department of defense high level architecture. In Proceedings of the 29th Conference on Winter Simulation, December 1997, Atlanta, Ga, USA. ACM; 142-149.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Smed J, Kaukoranta T, Hakonen H: Aspects of networking in multiplayer computer games. Electronic Library 2002,20(2):87-97. 10.1108/02640470210424392View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Androutsellis-Theotokis S, Spinellis D: A survey of peer-to-peer content distribution technologies. ACM Computing Surveys 2004,36(4):335-371. 10.1145/1041680.1041681View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Foster I, Kesselman C, Tuecke S: The anatomy of the grid: enabling scalable virtual organizations. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 2001,15(3):200-222. 10.1177/109434200101500302View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Anderson DP, Cobb J, Korpela E, Lebofsky M, Werthimer D: SETI@home: an experiment in public-resource computing. Communications of the ACM 2002,45(11):56-61. 10.1145/581571.581573View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta A, Lin B, Dinda PA: Measuring and understanding user comfort with resource borrowing. Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, June 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 214-224.Google Scholar
  34. Morán F, Preda M, Lafruit G, Villegas P, Berretty R-P: A content adaptation approach for on-line gaming on various networks and terminals. Proceedings of International Digital Games Conference (iDiG '06), September 2006, Portalegre, Portugal 233-236.Google Scholar
  35. Dinda PA, O'Hallaron DR: Host load prediction using linear models. Cluster Computing 2000,3(4):265-280. 10.1023/A:1019048724544View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Wolski R, Spring NT, Hayes J: The network weather service: a distributed resource performance forecasting service for metacomputing. Future Generation Computer Systems 1999,15(5-6):757-768. 10.1016/S0167-739X(99)00025-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Lüling R, Monien B, Ramme F: Load balancing in large networks: a comparative study. Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing, December 1991, Dallas, Tex, USA 686-689.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Wessels D, Claffy K: RFC 2187: Application of Internet Cache Protocol (ICP), version 2. 1997.Google Scholar
  39. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 1999.Google Scholar
  40. Le Feuvre J: GPAC. http://gpac.sourceforge.net./
  41. van Berkel C, Clarke J: Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design. Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IV, February 1997, San Jose, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 3012: 179-186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  42. Redert A, de Beeck MO, Fehn C, et al.: ATTEST: advanced three-dimensional television system technologies. Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission (3DPVT '02), June 2002, Padova, Italy 313-319.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  43. Fehn C, Kauff P, de Beeck MO, et al.: An evolutionary and optimised approach on 3D-TV. Proceedings of International Broadcast Conference (IBC '02), September 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 357-365.Google Scholar
  44. Berretty R-P, Peters FJ, Volleberg GTG: Real time rendering for multiview autostereoscopic displays. Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII, January 2006, San Jose, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 6055: 208-219.Google Scholar
  45. Rajae-Joordens R, Langendijk E, Wilinski P, Heynderickx I: Added value of a multi-view auto-stereoscopic 3D display in gaming applications. Proceedings of the 12th International Display Workshops in Conjunction with Asia Display (IDW/AD '05), December 2005, Takamatsu, Japan 1731-1734.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Francisco Morán et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Advertisement