Skip to main content
  • Research Article
  • Open access
  • Published:

Quad-Quaternion MUSIC for DOA Estimation Using Electromagnetic Vector Sensors


A new quad-quaternion model is herein established for an electromagnetic vector-sensor array, under which a multidimensional algebra-based direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, termed as quad-quaternion MUSIC (QQ-MUSIC), is proposed. This method provides DOA estimation (decoupled from polarization) by exploiting the orthogonality of the newly defined "quad-quaternion" signal and noise subspaces. Due to the stronger constraints that quad-quaternion orthogonality imposes on quad-quaternion vectors, QQ-MUSIC is shown to offer high robustness to model errors, and thus is very competent in practice. Simulation results have validated the proposed method.

Publisher note

To access the full article, please see PDF.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yougen Xu.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gong, X., Liu, Z. & Xu, Y. Quad-Quaternion MUSIC for DOA Estimation Using Electromagnetic Vector Sensors. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2008, 213293 (2009).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: