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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

A Robust Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Audio

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20072008:453580

  • Received: 30 July 2007
  • Accepted: 25 November 2007
  • Published:


In traditional watermarking algorithms, the insertion of watermark into the host signal inevitably introduces some perceptible quality degradation. Another problem is the inherent conflict between imperceptibility and robustness. Zero-watermarking technique can solve these problems successfully. Instead of embedding watermark, the zero-watermarking technique extracts some essential characteristics from the host signal and uses them for watermark detection. However, most of the available zero-watermarking schemes are designed for still image and their robustness is not satisfactory. In this paper, an efficient and robust zero-watermarking technique for audio signal is presented. The multiresolution characteristic of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the energy compression characteristic of discrete cosine transform (DCT), and the Gaussian noise suppression property of higher-order cumulant are combined to extract essential features from the host audio signal and they are then used for watermark recovery. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme in terms of inaudibility, detection reliability, and robustness.


  • Discrete Cosine Transform
  • Discrete Wavelet Transform
  • Discrete Wavelet
  • Audio Signal
  • Quality Degradation

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Authors’ Affiliations

The Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, DongChuan Road no.800, Shanghai, 200240, China


© N. Chen and J. Zhu. 2008

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.