Skip to main content


We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Decision Aggregation in Distributed Classification by a Transductive Extension of Maximum Entropy/Improved Iterative Scaling


In many ensemble classification paradigms, the function which combines local/base classifier decisions is learned in a supervised fashion. Such methods require common labeled training examples across the classifier ensemble. However, in some scenarios, where an ensemble solution is necessitated, common labeled data may not exist: (i) legacy/proprietary classifiers, and (ii) spatially distributed and/or multiple modality sensors. In such cases, it is standard to apply fixed (untrained) decision aggregation such as voting, averaging, or naive Bayes rules. In recent work, an alternative transductive learning strategy was proposed. There, decisions on test samples were chosen aiming to satisfy constraints measured by each local classifier. This approach was shown to reliably correct for class prior mismatch and to robustly account for classifier dependencies. Significant gains in accuracy over fixed aggregation rules were demonstrated. There are two main limitations of that work. First, feasibility of the constraints was not guaranteed. Second, heuristic learning was applied. Here, we overcome these problems via a transductive extension of maximum entropy/improved iterative scaling for aggregation in distributed classification. This method is shown to achieve improved decision accuracy over the earlier transductive approach and fixed rules on a number of UC Irvine datasets.

Publisher note

To access the full article, please see PDF.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to David J. Miller.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Miller, D.J., Zhang, Y. & Kesidis, G. Decision Aggregation in Distributed Classification by a Transductive Extension of Maximum Entropy/Improved Iterative Scaling. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2008, 674974 (2008).

Download citation


  • Aggregation Rule
  • Classifier Ensemble
  • Classifier Decision
  • Label Training
  • Improve Decision