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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Simultaneous Eye Tracking and Blink Detection with Interactive Particle Filters

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20072008:823695

  • Received: 2 May 2007
  • Accepted: 28 October 2007
  • Published:


We present a system that simultaneously tracks eyes and detects eye blinks. Two interactive particle filters are used for this purpose, one for the closed eyes and the other one for the open eyes. Each particle filter is used to track the eye locations as well as the scales of the eye subjects. The set of particles that gives higher confidence is defined as the primary set and the other one is defined as the secondary set. The eye location is estimated by the primary particle filter, and whether the eye status is open or closed is also decided by the label of the primary particle filter. When a new frame comes, the secondary particle filter is reinitialized according to the estimates from the primary particle filter. We use autoregression models for describing the state transition and a classification-based model for measuring the observation. Tensor subspace analysis is used for feature extraction which is followed by a logistic regression model to give the posterior estimation. The performance is carefully evaluated from two aspects: the blink detection rate and the tracking accuracy. The blink detection rate is evaluated using videos from varying scenarios, and the tracking accuracy is given by comparing with the benchmark data obtained using the Vicon motion capturing system. The setup for obtaining benchmark data for tracking accuracy evaluation is presented and experimental results are shown. Extensive experimental evaluations validate the capability of the algorithm.


  • Logistic Regression
  • Feature Extraction
  • Particle Filter
  • Secondary Particle
  • Benchmark Data

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Authors’ Affiliations

Computer Vision and Robotics Research Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA


© J.Wu and M. M. Trivedi. 2008

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.