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Table 2 Structure boundary conditions used for the middle ear finite element model.

From: Computer Aided Modeling of Human Mastoid Cavity Biomechanics Using Finite Element Analysis

Middle ear components

Young's modulus or spring constant


Superior mallear ligament





Lateral mallear ligament



Posterior incudal ligament



Anterior mallear ligament



Posterior stapedial muscle



Tensor tympani muscle



Cochlear fluid

60 N/m

0.06 N s/m

Stapedial annular ligament

9 N/m

0 N s/m