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Table 5 Bit error rate (in percentage) for 5 different music signals under different signal manipulations.

From: Audio Signal Processing Using Time-Frequency Approaches: Coding, Classification, Fingerprinting, and Watermarking

Robustness Test Audio Samples (%)
 
No signal manipulation 1.14 0.57 0.00 0.57 0.00
MP3 128 kbps 1.14 0.57 0.00 1.70 0.00
MP3 80 kbps 1.14 0.57 0.00 1.70 0.00
4 kHz low-pass filtering 3.42 3.42 1.14 5.68 1.70
Resampling at 22.05 kHz 3.98 3.42 2.27 3.98 1.14
Amplitude scaling 1.14 0.57 0.00 0.57 0.00
Inversion 1.14 0.57 0.00 0.57 0.00
Addition of delayed signal 1.14 0.57 0.00 1.14 0.57
Additive noise 2.27 2.84 1.70 2.27 1.14
Embedding multiple (two) watermarks 2.27 2.84 1.70 2.27 1.14