Open Access

An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami- Fading

  • Wamberto J. L. Queiroz1,
  • Waslon T. A. Lopes1,
  • Francisco Madeiro2 and
  • Marcelo S. Alencar1Email author
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20102010:574109

Received: 4 March 2010

Accepted: 24 September 2010

Published: 29 September 2010


This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP) of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM), -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM), and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM) under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.


Quantum InformationAmplitude ModulationFading ChannelError ProbabilityAdditive Noise

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Authors’ Affiliations

Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Brazil
Escola Politécnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil


© Wamberto J. L. Queiroz et al. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.