Skip to main content
  • Research Article
  • Open access
  • Published:

Experimental Investigation of TDD Reciprocity-Based Zero-Forcing Transmit Precoding


We describe an implementation of TDD reciprocity based zero-forcing linear precoding on a wireless testbed. A calibration technique which self-calibrates the base-station without the need for help from other nodes is described. Performance results in terms of downlink channel estimation error as well as bit error rate (BER) and signal to interference noise and distortion ratio (SINDR) are presented for a scenario with two base-stations and two mobile stations, with two antennas at the base-stations and a single antenna at the mobile-station. The results show considerable performance improvements over reference schemes (such as maximum ratio transmission). However, our analysis also reveals that the hardware impairments significantly limit the performance achieved. We further investigate how to model these impairments and attempt to predict the SINDR, such as what would be needed in a coordinated multipoint (CoMP) scenario where scheduling is performed jointly over the two cells. Although the results are obtained for a MISO scenario the general conclusions are relevant also for MIMO scenarios.

Publisher note

To access the full article, please see PDF.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Per Zetterberg.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zetterberg, P. Experimental Investigation of TDD Reciprocity-Based Zero-Forcing Transmit Precoding. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2011, 137541 (2011).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: