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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Trombone Synthesis by Model and Measurement

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20112011:151436

  • Received: 29 August 2010
  • Accepted: 24 January 2011
  • Published:


A physics-based synthesis model of a trombone is developed using filter elements that are both theoretically-based and estimated from measurement. The model consists of two trombone instrument transfer functions: one at the position of the mouthpiece enabling coupling to a lip-valve model and one at the outside of the bell for sound production. The focus of this work is on extending a previously presented measurement technique used to obtain acoustic characterizations of waveguide elements for cylindrical and conical elements, with further development allowing for the estimation of the flared trombone bell reflection and transmission functions for which no one-parameter traveling wave solution exists. A one-dimensional bell model is developed providing an approximate theoretical expectation to which estimation results may be compared. Dynamic trombone model elements, such as those dependent on the bore length, are theoretically and parametrically modeled. As a result, the trombone model focuses on accuracy, interactivity, and efficiency, making it suitable for a number of real-time computer music applications.


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  • Wave Solution
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  • Full Article
  • Theoretical Expectation

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Authors’ Affiliations

School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, Canada, V3T 0A3


© Tamara Smyth and Frederick S. Scott. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.