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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Recognition of Nonprototypical Emotions in Reverberated and Noisy Speech by Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

  • 1Email author,
  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 2 and
  • 3
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20112011:838790

  • Received: 30 July 2010
  • Accepted: 18 January 2011
  • Published:


We present a comprehensive study on the effect of reverberation and background noise on the recognition of nonprototypical emotions from speech. We carry out our evaluation on a single, well-defined task based on the FAU Aibo Emotion Corpus consisting of spontaneous children's speech, which was used in the INTERSPEECH 2009 Emotion Challenge, the first of its kind. Based on the challenge task, and relying on well-proven methodologies from the speech recognition domain, we derive test scenarios with realistic noise and reverberation conditions, including matched as well as mismatched condition training. As feature extraction based on supervised Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been proposed in automatic speech recognition for enhanced robustness, we introduce and evaluate different kinds of NMF-based features for emotion recognition. We conclude that NMF features can significantly contribute to the robustness of state-of-the-art emotion recognition engines in practical application scenarios where different noise and reverberation conditions have to be faced.


  • Feature Extraction
  • Speech Recognition
  • Emotion Recognition
  • Automatic Speech Recognition
  • Test Scenario

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Authors’ Affiliations

Lehrstuhl für Mensch-Maschine-Kommunikation, Technische Universität München, 80290 München, Germany
Mustererkennung Labor, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
ESAT, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium


© Felix Weninger et al. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.