Skip to main content

Simulation of Human Speech Production Applied to the Study and Synthesis of European Portuguese


A new articulatory synthesizer (SAPWindows), with a modular and flexible design, is described. A comprehensive acoustic model and a new interactive glottal source were implemented. Perceptual tests and simulations made possible by the synthesizer contributed to deepening our knowledge of one of the most important characteristics of European Portuguese, the nasal vowels. First attempts at incorporating models of frication into the articulatory synthesizer are presented, demonstrating the potential of performing fricative synthesis based on broad articulatory configurations. Synthesis of nonsense words and Portuguese words with vowels and nasal consonants is also shown. Despite not being capable of competing with mainstream concatenative speech synthesis, the anthropomorphic approach to speech synthesis, known as articulatory synthesis, proved to be a valuable tool for phonetics research and teaching. This was particularly true for the European Portuguese nasal vowels.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to António J. S. Teixeira.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Teixeira, A.J.S., Martinez, R., Silva, L.N. et al. Simulation of Human Speech Production Applied to the Study and Synthesis of European Portuguese. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2005, 709592 (2005).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • DOI:

Keywords and phrases