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Generic Hardware Architectures for Sampling and Resampling in Particle Filters


Particle filtering is a statistical signal processing methodology that has recently gained popularity in solving several problems in signal processing and communications. Particle filters (PFs) have been shown to outperform traditional filters in important practical scenarios. However their computational complexity and lack of dedicated hardware for real-time processing have adversely affected their use in real-time applications. In this paper, we present generic architectures for the implementation of the most commonly used PF, namely, the sampling importance resampling filter (SIRF). These provide a generic framework for the hardware realization of the SIRF applied to any model. The proposed architectures significantly reduce the memory requirement of the filter in hardware as compared to a straightforward implementation based on the traditional algorithm. We propose two architectures each based on a different resampling mechanism. Further, modifications of these architectures for acceleration of resampling process are presented. We evaluate these schemes based on resource usage and latency. The platform used for the evaluations is the Xilinx Virtex II pro FPGA. The architectures presented here have led to the development of the first hardware (FPGA) prototype for the particle filter applied to the bearings-only tracking problem.

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Correspondence to Akshay Athalye.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Athalye, A., Bolić, M., Hong, S. et al. Generic Hardware Architectures for Sampling and Resampling in Particle Filters. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2005, 476167 (2005).

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Keywords and phrases

  • particle filters
  • hardware architectures
  • memory schemes
  • real-time processing
  • bearings-only tracking