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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Steady-State VEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Control in an Immersive 3D Gaming Environment

  • 1Email author,
  • 1, 2,
  • 3,
  • 4,
  • 1,
  • 1 and
  • 1
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20052005:706906

  • Received: 2 February 2004
  • Published:


This paper presents the application of an effective EEG-based brain-computer interface design for binary control in a visually elaborate immersive 3D game. The BCI uses the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) generated in response to phase-reversing checkerboard patterns. Two power-spectrum estimation methods were employed for feature extraction in a series of offline classification tests. Both methods were also implemented during real-time game play. The performance of the BCI was found to be robust to distracting visual stimulation in the game and relatively consistent across six subjects, with 41 of 48 games successfully completed. For the best performing feature extraction method, the average real-time control accuracy across subjects was 89%. The feasibility of obtaining reliable control in such a visually rich environment using SSVEPs is thus demonstrated and the impact of this result is discussed.

Keywords and phrases

  • EEG
  • BCI
  • online classification
  • overt attention

Authors’ Affiliations

School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
The Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St. James's Hospital, P.O. Box 580, Dublin 8, Ireland
EOC Operations Center, Microsoft Corporation, Sandyford Industrial Estate, Dublin 18, Ireland


© Lalor et al. 2005