A Subspace Approach to Blind Multiuser Detection for Ultra-Wideband Communication Systems
© Xu et al. 2005
Received: 26 September 2003
Published: 17 March 2005
Impulse radio-based ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems allow multiple users to access channels simultaneously by assigning unique time-hopping codes to individual users, while each user's information stream is modulated by pulse-position modulation (PPM). However, transmitted signals undergo fading from a number of propagation paths in a dense multipath environment and meanwhile suffer from multiuser interference (MUI). Although RAKE receiver can be employed to maximally exploit path diversity, it is a single-user receiver. Multiuser receiver can significantly improve detection performance. Each of these receivers requires channel parameters. Existing maximum likelihood channel estimators treat MUI as Gaussian noise. In this paper, we derive a blind subspace channel estimator first and then design linear receivers. Following a channel input/output model that transforms a PPM signal into a sum of seemingly pulse-amplitude modulated signals, a structure similar to a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system is observed. Code matrices for each user are identified. After considering unique statistical properties of new inputs such as mean and covariance, the model is further transformed to ensure that all signature waveforms lie in the signal subspace and are orthogonal to the noise subspace. Consequently, a subspace technique is applicable to estimate each channel. Then minimum mean square error receivers of two different versions are designed, suitable for both uplink and downlink. Asymptotic performance of both the channel estimator and receivers is studied. Closed-form bit error rate is also derived.