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Kalman Filters for Time Delay of Arrival-Based Source Localization


In this work, we propose an algorithm for acoustic source localization based on time delay of arrival (TDOA) estimation. In earlier work by other authors, an initial closed-form approximation was first used to estimate the true position of the speaker followed by a Kalman filtering stage to smooth the time series of estimates. In the proposed algorithm, this closed-form approximation is eliminated by employing a Kalman filter to directly update the speaker's position estimate based on the observed TDOAs. In particular, the TDOAs comprise the observation associated with an extended Kalman filter whose state corresponds to the speaker's position. We tested our algorithm on a data set consisting of seminars held by actual speakers. Our experiments revealed that the proposed algorithm provides source localization accuracy superior to the standard spherical and linear intersection techniques. Moreover, the proposed algorithm, although relying on an iterative optimization scheme, proved efficient enough for real-time operation.


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Correspondence to Ulrich Klee.

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Klee, U., Gehrig, T. & McDonough, J. Kalman Filters for Time Delay of Arrival-Based Source Localization. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2006, 012378 (2006).

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  • Time Delay
  • Kalman Filter
  • Source Localization
  • Extended Kalman Filter
  • Localization Accuracy