- Research Article
- Open Access
Efficient Realization of Sigma-Delta (-) Kalman Lowpass Filter in Hardware Using FPGA
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing volume 2006, Article number: 052736 (2006)
Sigma-delta (-) modulation techniques have moved into mainstream applications in signal processing and have found many practical uses in areas such as high-resolution A/D, D/A conversions, voice communication, and software radio.- modulators produce a single, or few bits output resulting in hardware saving and thus making them suitable for implementation in very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits. To reduce quantization noise produced, higher-order modulators such as multiloop and multistage architectures are commonly used. The quantization noise behavior of higher-order- modulators is well understood. Based on these quantization noise characteristics, various demodulator architectures, such as filter, optimal FIR filter, and Laguerre filter are reported in literature. In this paper, theory and design of an efficient Kalman recursive demodulator filter is shown. Hardware implementation of Kalman lowpass filter, using field programmable gate array (FPGA), is explained. The FPGA synthesis results from Kalman filter design are compared with previous designs for sinc filter, optimum FIR filter, and Laguerre filter.
Cummings JP: Software radios for airborne platforms. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1999, 17(4):732–747. 10.1109/49.761049
Reichhart SP, Youmans B, Dygert R: The software radio development system. IEEE Personal Communications 1999, 6(4):20–24. 10.1109/98.788211
Dick C, Harris F: FPGA signal processing using Sigma-Delta modulation. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2000, 17(1):20–35. 10.1109/79.814644
Abeysekera SS, Padhi KP:Design of multiplier free FIR filters using a LADF Sigma-Delta () modulator. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '00), May 2000, Geneva, Switzerland 2: 65–68.
Schreier R, Snelgrove M: Bandpass Sigma-Delta modulation. Electronics Letters 1989, 25(23):1560–1561. 10.1049/el:19891048
Song B-S, Lee IS: A digital FM demodulator for FM, TV, and wireless. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing 1995, 42(12):821–825. 10.1109/82.476180
Abeysekera SS, Yao X, Zang Z: A comparison of various low-pass filter architectures for Sigma-Delta demodulators. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '99), May–June 1999, Orlando, Fla, USA 2: 380–383.
Lin K, Zhao K, Chui E, Krone A, Nohrden J: Digital filters for high performance audio Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP '96), October 1996, Beijing, China 1: 59–63.
Abeysekera SS, Charoensak C:Optimum Sigma-Delta () de-modulator filter implementation via FPGA. Proceedings of 14th Annual IEEE International ASIC/SOC Conference, September 2001, Arlington, Va, USA 281–285.
Abeysekera SS, Charoensak C:FPGA implementation of a Sigma-Delta () architecture based digital I-F stage for software radio. Proceedings of 15th Annual IEEE International ASIC/SOC Conference, September 2002, Rochester, NY, USA 341–345.
Abeysekera SS, Yao X, Charoensak C: Design of optimal and narrow-band Laguerre filters for Sigma-Delta demodulators. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing 2003, 50(7):368–375. 10.1109/TCSII.2003.813588
Abeysekera SS:Bandpass Sigma-Delta () architecture based efficient FM demodulator for software radio. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '04), May 2004, Vancouver, BC, Canada 4: 381–384.
Candy JC: A use of double integration in Sigma Delta modulation. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1985, 33(3):249–258.
Uchimura K, Hayashi T, Kimura T, Iwata A: Oversampling A-to-D and D-to-A converters with multistage noise shaping modulators. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 1988, 36(12):1899–1905. 10.1109/29.9034
Chou W, Wong PW, Gray RM: Multistage Sigma-Delta modulation. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1989, 35(4):784–796. 10.1109/18.32155
Wong PW, Gray RM: FIR filters with Sigma-Delta modulation encoding. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 1990, 38(6):979–990. 10.1109/29.56058
Abeysekera SS, Yao X: Optimum Laguerre filter design technique for Sigma-Delta demodulators. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '00), May 2000, Geneva, Switzerland 5: 405–408.
Abeysekera SS, Yao X: A single stage decimator architecture for Sigma-Delta demodulators using Laguerre filters. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '01), May 2001, Sydney, NSW, Australia 2: 789–792.
Abeysekera SS: Stability analysis of Sigma-Delta modulators using a non-linear technique. Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on Signal Processing and Its Applications (ISSPA '96), August 1996, Gold Coast, Australia 1: 242–245.
Abeysekera SS: Kalman filter architectures for Sigma-Delta demodulators. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS '02), November 2002, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Haykin S: Adaptive Filter Theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1996.
Xilinx Inc System Generator v2.3 for the MathWorks Simulink: Quick Start Guide, July 2002
About this article
Cite this article
Abeysekera, S.S., Charoensak, C. Efficient Realization of Sigma-Delta (-) Kalman Lowpass Filter in Hardware Using FPGA. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2006, 052736 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1155/ASP/2006/52736
- Field Programmable Gate Array
- Quantization Noise
- Very Large Scale Integration
- Large Scale Integration
- Voice Communication