Open Access

Impact and Mitigation of Multiantenna Analog Front-End Mismatch in Transmit Maximum Ratio Combining

  • Jian Liu1, 2Email author,
  • Nadia Khaled1, 3,
  • Frederik Petré1,
  • André Bourdoux1 and
  • Alain Barel4
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20062006:086931

https://doi.org/10.1155/ASP/2006/86931

Received: 20 December 2004

Accepted: 27 May 2005

Published: 16 March 2006

Abstract

Transmit maximum ratio combining (MRC) allows to extend the range of wireless local area networks (WLANs) by exploiting spatial diversity and array gains. These gains, however, depend on the availability of the channel state information (CSI). In this perspective, an open-loop approach in time-division-duplex (TDD) systems relies on channel reciprocity between up- and downlink to acquire the CSI. Although the propagation channel can be assumed to be reciprocal, the radio-frequency (RF) transceivers may exhibit amplitude and phase mismatches between the up- and downlink. In this contribution, we present a statistical analysis to assess the impact of these mismatches on the performance of transmit-MRC. Furthermore, we propose a novel mixed-signal calibration scheme to mitigate these mismatches, which allows to reduce the implementation loss to as little as a few tenths of a dB. Finally, we also demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed calibration scheme in a real-time wireless MIMO-OFDM prototyping platform.

[1234567891011121314151617]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC), Wireless Research
(2)
Department ELEC-ETRO, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
(3)
E.E. Department, KULeuven, ESAT/INSYS
(4)
Department of ELEC, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

References

  1. IEEE 802.11 homepage http://www.ieee802.org/11
  2. Gesbert D, Shafi M, Shiu D-S, Smith PJ, Naguib A: From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003, 21(3):281-302. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.809458View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Paularj AJ, Gore DA, Nabar RU, Bolcskei H: An overview of MIMO communications - a key to gigabit wireless. Proceedings of IEEE 2004, 92(2):198-218. 10.1109/JPROC.2003.821915View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Stuber GL, Barry JR, McLaughlin SW, Li Y, Ingram MA, Pratt TG: Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications. Proceedings of IEEE 2004, 92(2):271-294. 10.1109/JPROC.2003.821912View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Lo TKY: Maximum ratio transmission. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1999, 47(10):1458-1461. 10.1109/26.795811View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Paulraj AJ, Nabar RU, Gore DA: Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Ertel RB, Hu Z, Reed JH: Antenna array hardware amplitude and phase compensation using baseband antenna array outputs. Proceedings of 49th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '99), May 1999, Houston, Tex, USA 3: 1759-1763.Google Scholar
  8. Kobayakawa S, Tsutsui M, Tanaka Y: A blind calibration method for an adaptive array antenna in DS-CDMA systems using an MMSE algorithm. Proceedings of 51st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '00), May 2000, Tokyo, Japan 1: 21-25.Google Scholar
  9. Park HG, Park C, Oh H, Kyeong MG: RF gain/phase and I/Q imbalance error correction technique for multi-channel array antenna systems. Proceedings of 53rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '01), May 2001, Rhodes, Greece 1: 175-179.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Jung JH, Park HG, Ryu DS: Calibration techniques of multi-channel transceiver using noninterfering calibration signals for CDMA smart antenna systems. Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP '02), August 2002 , Beijing, China 2: 1629-1632.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourdoux A, Come B, Khaled N: Non-reciprocal transceivers in OFDM/SDMA systems: impact and mitigation. Proceedings of IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference (RAWCON '03), August 2003, Boston, Mass, USA 183-186.Google Scholar
  12. Khaled N, Jagannathan S, Petré F, Leus G, De Man H: On the impact of multi-antenna RF transceivers' amplitude and phase mismatches on transmit MRC. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '05), March 2005, Philadelphia, Pa, USA 4: 893-896.Google Scholar
  13. Liu J, Bourdoux A, Craninckx J, et al.: OFDM-MIMO WLAN AP front-end gain and phase mismatch calibration. Proceedings of IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference (RAWCON '04), September 2004, Atlanta, Ga, USA 151-154.Google Scholar
  14. IEEE Std. 802.11a : Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: high-level physical in the 5 GHz band. In Tech. Rep.. IEEE, New York, NY, USA; September, 1999.Google Scholar
  15. Erceg V, Schumacher L, Kyritsi P, et al.: TGn channel models. In IEEE 802.11 document 03/940r2. IEEE, New York, NY, USA; January 2004.Google Scholar
  16. Proakis JG: Digital Communications . 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA; 1995.MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Ketchum J, Howard S, Wallace M, Walton R, Bjerke B, Medvedev I, et al.: PHY design for spatial multiplexing MIMO WLAN. In IEEE 802.11 document 04/0721r0. IEEE, New York, NY, USA; July 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Liu et al. 2006