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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

An Automated Acoustic System to Monitor and Classify Birds

  • C. Kwan1Email author,
  • K.C. Ho2,
  • G. Mei1,
  • Y. Li2,
  • Z. Ren1,
  • R. Xu1,
  • Y. Zhang1,
  • D. Lao1,
  • M. Stevenson1,
  • V. Stanford3 and
  • C. Rochet3
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20062006:096706

Received: 4 May 2005

Accepted: 11 October 2005

Published: 28 March 2006


This paper presents a novel bird monitoring and recognition system in noisy environments. The project objective is to avoid bird strikes to aircraft. First, a cost-effective microphone dish concept (microphone array with many concentric rings) is presented that can provide directional and accurate acquisition of bird sounds and can simultaneously pick up bird sounds from different directions. Second, direction-of-arrival (DOA) and beamforming algorithms have been developed for the circular array. Third, an efficient recognition algorithm is proposed which uses Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). The overall system is suitable for monitoring and recognition for a large number of birds. Fourth, a hardware prototype has been built and initial experiments demonstrated that the array can acquire and classify birds accurately.


Information TechnologyMixture ModelQuantum InformationInitial ExperimentRecognition System


Authors’ Affiliations

Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, USA
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, USA


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© C. Kwan et al. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.