Open Access

Audio Watermarking Based on HAS and Neural Networks in DCT Domain

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20032003:764030

Received: 8 August 2001

Published: 13 March 2003


We propose a new intelligent audio watermarking method based on the characteristics of the HAS and the techniques of neural networks in the DCT domain. The method makes the watermark imperceptible by using the audio masking characteristics of the HAS. Moreover, the method exploits a neural network for memorizing the relationships between the original audio signals and the watermarked audio signals. Therefore, the method is capable of extracting watermarks without original audio signals. Finally, the experimental results are also included to illustrate that the method significantly possesses robustness to be immune against common attacks for the copyright protection of digital audio.


audio watermarkingdata hidingcopyright protectionneural networkshuman auditory system

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Information Management, National Huwei Institute of Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan
, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, Taiwan


© Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2003