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Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding


We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.

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Correspondence to Mohamed F. Mansour.

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Mansour, M.F., Tewfik, A.H. Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2003, 230162 (2003).

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  • data embedding
  • broadcast monitoring
  • time-scale invariant
  • spline interpolation