Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20032003:230162

  • Received: 31 May 2002
  • Published:


We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.


  • data embedding
  • broadcast monitoring
  • time-scale invariant
  • spline interpolation

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA


© Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2003