Open Access

High-Performance Wireless via the Merger of CI Chip-Shaped DS-CDMA and Oscillating-Beam Smart Antenna Arrays

  • Seyed Alireza Zekavat1Email author,
  • Carl R. Nassar2 and
  • Steve Shattil3
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:617413

Received: 29 May 2003

Published: 19 August 2004


We introduce a novel merger of direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) and smart antenna arrays. With regard to the DS-CDMA scheme, we employ carrier interferometry DS-CDMA (CI/DS-CDMA), a novel implementation of DS-CDMA where chips are decomposable into narrowband frequency components. With regard to the antenna array, we deploy the oscillating-beam smart array. Here, applying proper time-varying phases to the array elements, we create small movement (oscillation) in the antenna array's pattern, while steering the antenna pattern main lobe to the position of the intended user. The oscillating antenna pattern creates a time-varying channel with a controllable coherence time. This, in turn, provides transmit diversity in the form of a time diversity gain at the mobile receiver side. At the receiver, three stages of combining are available: combining time components of the received signal within symbol duration (each experiencing a different fade) to enhance performance via time diversity; combining frequency components which make up the CI/DS-CDMA chip to enhance the performance via frequency diversity; and combining across chips to eliminate the interfering users on the system. Merging CI/DS-CDMA with the oscillating-beam smart antenna at the base station, we achieve very high capacity via the merger of SDMA (available through directionality of the antenna array) and code division multiple access (inherent in CI/DS-CDMA), and very high performance via the construction of receivers that exploit both transmit diversity and frequency diversity. We present the performance gains of the proposed merger.

Keywords and phrases

smart antennasantenna arraysDS-CDMA systemstransmit diversitycarrier interferometry