Open Access

On the Determination of Optimal Model Order for GMM-Based Text-Independent Speaker Identification

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:308747

Received: 1 October 2003

Published: 8 July 2004


Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are recently employed to provide a robust technique for speaker identification. The determination of the appropriate number of Gaussian components in a model for adequate speaker representation is a crucial but difficult problem. This number is in fact speaker dependent. Therefore, assuming a fixed number of Gaussian components for all speakers is not justified. In this paper, we develop a procedure for roughly estimating the maximum possible model order above which the estimation of model parameters becomes unreliable. In addition, a theoretical measure, namely, a goodness of fit (GOF) measure is derived and utilized in estimating the number of Gaussian components needed to characterize different speakers. The estimation is carried out by exploiting the distribution of the training data for each speaker. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique provides comparable results to other well-known model selection criteria like the minimum description length (MDL) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC).


Gaussian mixture modelgoodness of fitminimum description lengthAkaike information criterionspeaker identificationtext-independent speaker identification

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Electronics & Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Department of Engineering Physics & Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University


© Abu El-Yazeed et al. 2004