Open Access

Fast Watermarking of MPEG-1/2 Streams Using Compressed-Domain Perceptual Embedding and a Generalized Correlator Detector

  • Dimitrios Simitopoulos1, 2Email author,
  • Sotirios A. Tsaftaris3,
  • Nikolaos V. Boulgouris4,
  • Alexia Briassouli5 and
  • Michael G. Strintzis1, 2
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:890282

Received: 9 January 2003

Published: 8 July 2004


A novel technique is proposed for watermarking of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 compressed video streams. The proposed scheme is applied directly in the domain of MPEG-1 system streams and MPEG-2 program streams (multiplexed streams). Perceptual models are used during the embedding process in order to avoid degradation of the video quality. The watermark is detected without the use of the original video sequence. A modified correlation-based detector is introduced that applies nonlinear preprocessing before correlation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand several common attacks. The resulting watermarking system is very fast and therefore suitable for copyright protection of compressed video.

Keywords and phrases

MPEG video watermarkingblind watermarkingimperceptible embeddinggeneralized correlator detector

Authors’ Affiliations

Information Processing Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Informatics and Telematics Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Northwestern University
The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto
Beckman Institute, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinios at Urbana-Champaign


© Simitopoulos et al. 2004