Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

  • 1Email author,
  • 2 and
  • 1
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:805171

  • Received: 7 July 2003
  • Published:


This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part) is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.


  • piano
  • hammer-string interaction
  • source-resonator model
  • analysis/synthesis

Authors’ Affiliations

Laboratoire de Mécanique et d'Acoustique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (LMA-CNRS), Marseille Cedex 20, 13402, France
Datalogisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Universitetsparken 1, København, 2100, Denmark


© Bensa et al. 2004