Open Access

A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

  • Julien Bensa1Email author,
  • Kristoffer Jensen2 and
  • Richard Kronland-Martinet1
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:805171

Received: 7 July 2003

Published: 27 June 2004


This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part) is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.


pianohammer-string interactionsource-resonator modelanalysis/synthesis

Authors’ Affiliations

Laboratoire de Mécanique et d'Acoustique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (LMA-CNRS), Marseille Cedex 20, France
Datalogisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, København, Denmark


© Bensa et al. 2004