Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

  • Sugiri Pranata1Email author,
  • Viktor Wahadaniah1,
  • Yong Liang Guan1 and
  • Hock Chuan Chua1
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:953279

Received: 2 April 2003

Published: 28 October 2004


The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

Keywords and phrases

bit rate controldigital watermarkingreal-time watermarkingquantized DCT watermarking

Authors’ Affiliations

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (EEE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore


© Pranata et al. 2004