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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Sonic Watermarking

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20042004:734348

Received: 5 September 2003

Published: 5 October 2004


Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digital sound. In this paper, we extend the range of its applications to live performances with a new composition method for real-time audio watermarking. Sonic watermarking mixes the sound of the watermark signal and the host sound in the air to detect illegal music recordings recorded from auditoriums. We propose an audio watermarking algorithm for sonic watermarking that increases the magnitudes of the host signal only in segmented areas pseudorandomly chosen in the time-frequency plane. The result of a MUSHRA subjective listening test assesses the acoustic quality of the method in the range of "excellent quality." The robustness is dependent on the type of music samples. For popular and orchestral music, a watermark can be stably detected from music samples that have been sonic-watermarked and then once compressed in an MPEG layer file.

Keywords and phrases

sonic watermarkingaudio watermarkingreal-time embeddinglive performancebootleg recordingcopyright protection

Authors’ Affiliations

Tokyo Research Laboratory, IBM Japan, Yamato-shi, Japan


© Tachibana 2004

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.