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Table 2 Watermark imperceptibility assessment in use of several image quality metrics

From: Performance analysis and improvement of dither modulation under the composite attacks

Metrics DM DC-DM Oostveen's RDM NDM IM-NDM
wPSNR (dB) 42.63 42.62 42.91 42.58 42.98 42.97
TPE 0.035 0.035 0.032 0.041 0.032 0.032
NLPE1 8.50 8.65 7.50 9.87 6.70 6.83
NLPE2 4.63 4.55 4.30 6.53 3.58 3.60