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Table 2 Performance comparison between the proposed scheme and PP-AFFINE[21] against the attacks in StirMark 3

From: Counteracting geometrical attacks on robust image watermarking by constructing a deformable pyramid transform

Attacks Scheme in[21] Proposed
JPEG compression 0.74 0.97
Enhancement 1 1
Row/column line removal 1 1
Rotation 1 1
Random geometrical distortions 0 0
Scaling 0.78 0.68
Cropping 0.89 0.78
Shearing 1 0.20
Flip 1 0
  1. Enhancement includes Gaussian filtering, median filtering, sharpening, and frequency model Laplacian removal, and Rotation denotes rotation with auto-cropping and scaling. In the simulation, the default settings in StirMark 3 [36, 37] are adopted for all attacks. For each parameter in the default settings, the score is set to 1 if the message can be correctly recovered and 0 if otherwise. These scores are then averaged to yield the results in the table above.