The resulting T-F coherence estimates using Equations ( 5 ), ( 9 ), and ( 11 ) for the first simulated dataset. All results were estimated using a 0.5-s Hamming weighting window and a 0.75-s Hamming smoothing window. The first simulated dataset (a = 0.5) compares three different estimators of T-F interdependence: method 1 using identical smoothing operators (top row) and methods 2 and 3 using non-identical smoothing operators (bottom two rows). Panels A, D, and G show the magnitude of the T-F estimate obtained from single simulation; panels B, E, and H show the percentage of simulations in which the null hypothesis was rejected (estimated across 100 simulations), and panels C, F, I the time-marginal density reflecting the time-course of the coherence estimate. In panels F and I, T-F coherence interdependence is projected within [0,1] by using tanh−1(.) function for comparison purposes.