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Table 1 Examples of frequencies of some biophysical signaling

From: Diffusion-controlled interface kinetics-inclusive system-theoretic propagation models for molecular communication systems

Signaling type Period ( over 1 m) Bandwidth (Hz) Reference
Protein diffusion 317 years 1 × 10−10 [95]
K+ ion diffusion 12 min to traverse 5 nm ion channel 1.4 × 10−3
Proton diffusion 3.4 years 9.3 × 10−10 [96]
Calcium wave 20 h 1.4 × 10−5 [97]
Hormones (arterial blood flow) 2.5 s 0.4 [98]