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Table 2 Relations between the general model (1) and the considered time-based and RSS-based localization modelsa

From: On a unified framework for linear nuisance parameters

General model (1) y H x G u
TSE model (25) δ (k−1) Δ (k−1) x t 1 N×1 r 0
SD-TOA model (31b) D1′z 1 D1′A1′ x t D1′A1″ \([||\mathbf {x}_{t}||_{2}^{2}-{r_{0}^{2}}, r_{0}]^{T}\)
SD-TDOA model (36b) D2′z 2 D2′A2′ x t D2′A2″ r j
SD-RSS model (43b) D h F \([\mathbf {x}_{t}^{T}, ||\mathbf {x}_{t}||_{2}^{2}]^{T}\) 1 N×1 P0′
  1. aAll the considered models must be white or whitened, i.e., the covariance of the model noise should be a (scaled) identity