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Table 2 Summary of TALA settings

From: Novel maximum likelihood approach for passive detection and localisation of multiple emitters

TALA component Details
AOA/DDOA intersections (Step 1) Based on measurements at only five sensors, only DDOAs satisfying Eq. (34) are used, with γ=2
N-R approach to determine DDOA intersections (Step 1) 10 attempts allowed: attempt #1 initialises with the corresponding AOA intersection, subsequent attempts use random starting locations
Measurement association (Step 2) Gate threshold, ξ=10−3 (scenarios 1-2) gate threshold, ξ=10−2 (scenarios 3)
Intersection downselection (Step 3) Only consider intersections for which the total number of associated measurements is no smaller than N P d /2
G-N approach for ML estimation (Step 4) Determine overall likelihood for step sizes of ±20%, ±40%, ±60%, ±80%, and ±100% of the Newton step (i.e. m=5)
  If no step increases the overall likelihood, consider a step of magnitude 200 m (i.e. =δ M ) in a random direction
  Stop iterating if the procedure above has attempted a total of 20 random steps, or each component of the GNSSE F(X k ) Σ −1×[Zf(X k )] has a magnitude smaller than 10−3
  Reassociation is only performed during gradient descent in scenario 3