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Table 5 Chronobiology

From: Statistically inferred time warping: extending the cyclostationarity paradigm from regular to irregular statistical cyclicity in scientific data

Chronobiology (45,300 search hits on Google Scholar). The study of how solar- and lunar-related rhythms are governed by living pacemakers within organisms constitutes the scientific discipline of chronobiology (sometimes called chronomics). Parallel to the familiar spatial cellular structure of living cells, temporal (time) organization is a vital part of the survival and normal functioning of every species. Adaptations evolved by organisms to cope with regular geophysical cycles in their environment are evident in nearly every aspect of their lives. In fact, biological timekeeping is a core property of life on a rotating and revolving planet. Thus, cyclicity (or rhythmicity) is central to much of chronobiology. That is chronobiology is in large part the study of biological rhythms which represent irregular cyclicity and include physiological or behavioral, and internally- (endogenous) or externally-(exogenous) controlled rhythms; diurnal, nocturnal, and crepuscular rhythms; circadian, ultradian, and infradian rhythms; and tidal, lunar, and gene oscillation rhythms.
Chronobiological studies include but are not limited to comparative anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology and behavior of organisms within biological rhythms mechanics [ Chronobiology: Biological Timekeeping, by J. C. Dunlap; J. J. Loros, and P. J. DeCoursey, Sinauer Associates Inc., 2009.] Other aspects include development, reproduction, ecology and evolution.