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Table 5 A comparison between the proposed method and the recent state-of-the-art model-based methods

From: Distributed and adaptive location identification system for mobile devices

Method Model Architecture Scenario MLE < 3 m
A self-adaptive model-based [33] Modified dual-model Centralized client-server (localization and tracking) Single room, stationary 2–3 m 70%
Multi-room, stationary 3–4 m 70%
MFAM [34] Modified dual-mode model with multi-frequency Centralized client-server (localization and tracking) Multi-room, stationary 2.16 m NA
IMM-EKF [35] Dual-slope, interacting multi-model with Kalman filters Centralized client-server (localization and tracking) Multi-room, mobile 0.19 m 100%
DALIS (proposed) Pure model-based Distributed ad hoc (pseudo-GPS location identification) Single room, stationary, standstill 1.59 m 98%
Single room, stationary, moving in-place 1.83 m 97%