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Table 1 Lower bound BER as the sum of two contributions varying M. SNR = 0 dB

From: Analysis and performance of coded symbol recovery loop using oversampling

M PL P1 P2 BER
Costas 1.0 0.0057 0.00 0.0057
2 0.99 3.90e −6 0.0032 0.0032
4 0.98 3.90e −6 0.0060 0.0060
8 0.86 3.42e −6 1.21e −4 1.24e −4
16 0.62 2.49e −6 6.99e −6 9.48e −6
32 0.53 2.11e −6 2.76e −6 4.88e −6
0.50 1.98e −6 1.98e −6 3.97e −6