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Table 3 Training time and test classification accuracy of the proposed HNF versus backpropagation

From: High-dimensional neural feature design for layer-wise reduction of training cost

Dataset Proposed HNF Backpropagation
  Accuracy Training time Accuracy Training time
Letter 93.42 47 s 95.03 4566 s
Shuttle 99.21 24 s 99.21 15,283 s
MNIST 97.14 108 s 98.30 20,433 s