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Table 1 An overview of MA removal techniques

From: Heart rate tracking in photoplethysmography signals affected by motion artifacts: a review

Author Static filtering No. of channels used MA removal technique Specific details Additional details
Pengfei et al. [25] 2 PPG, 3 ACC were sampled at 100 Hz FT RLS filtering Reflective type PPG sensor on the left hand reference PPG was available via the right hand
Fallet and Vesin [26, 27] Downsampled all signals to 35 Hz 2 PPG, 3 ACC were sampled at 125 Hz NLMS IEEE SPC, 2015 All six combinations of PPG and ACC signals were used
Wood and Harry [30] 1 PPG, 3 ACC signals were sampled at 100 Hz Laguerre-based ANC Ring type PPG sensor Jogger experiment
Ram et al. [37] 1 IR, 1 red PPG signals were sampled at 250 Hz Adaptive step LMS filtering Synthetic MA generation using FFT, SVD, and ICA Tested for randomness using skew and Kurtosis
Yalan Ye. [42] Signals were bandpassed using 0.4–5 Hz 2 PPG, 3 ACC were sampled at 125 Hz Non-linear Volterra-based RLS adaptive algorithm TROIKA [65], IEEE SPC, 2015
Yangsong Zhang [51] Signals were bandpassed using 0.4–5 Hz 2 PPG, 3 ACC were sampled at 125 Hz Correlation-based MA removal using EEMD Fast EEMD (FEEMD), IEEE SPC, 2015
Biagetti et al. [58] Signals were bandpassed using 0.4–5 Hz 2 PPG, 3 ACC were sampled at 125 Hz SVD-based decomposition of signal present in Hankel space IEEE SPC, 2015 Exercise model
Kim and Yoo [59] 1 IR, 1 red PPG signals were sampled at 500 Hz ICA decompostion
Ziling Zhang [66] Downsampled signals to 25 Hz and signals were bandpassed using 0.4–4 Hz 2 PPG, 3 ACC signals were sampled at 125 Hz JSSR using MMV model IEEE SPC, 2015  
Rojano and Isaza [47] 2 PPG, 3 ACC signals were sampled at 125 Hz SVDTFD and DWT and EEMD 11 signals taken IEEE SPC, 2015
Dubey et al. [69] 2 PPG, 3 ACC signals were sampled at 125 Hz HSUM IEEE SPC, 2015
Schack et al. [70] Downsampled signals to 25 Hz and signals were bandpassed using 0.5–6 Hz 2 PPG, 3 ACC signals were sampled at 125 Hz Adding squared PPG spectra and Gaussian filtering IEEE SPC, 2015 indicator function which showed correlation-based fundamental frequency