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Table 2 The comparison result by using AVF reconstruction method and our proposed algorithm

From: A visual fingerprint update algorithm based on crowdsourced localization and deep learning for smart IoV

Feature Reconstruction by AVF proposed in [14] Crowdsource based algorithm
Participant Specialist Crowdsourced user
Periodicity Yes No
Location perception of the displaced object No Yes
Average processing time (s) 1221 2.6
Mean relocation error (m) 0.35 0.43