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Table 1 Computational complexity comparison

From: Low-complexity signal detection networks based on Gauss-Seidel iterative method for massive MIMO systems

Algorithm Number of multiplications
Cholesky MMSE [42] \(\mathrm {O(2M^3+(N+M)M)}\)
OAMPNet [25] \(\mathrm {O(2tN^3)}\)
MMNet-iid [27] \(\mathrm {O(2tMN+tM)}\)
TL-BD-INSA [32] \(\mathrm {O(\frac{k_N+k_F}{4}M^3+\frac{k_N-2}{2}m_{UE}M^2+(N+M+2m_{UE}^2)M )}\)
BGS-Net \(\left\{ \begin{matrix} a)\quad \mathrm {O(\frac{1}{24}M^3+\frac{3}{4}tM^2+MN+M )} \\ b)\quad \mathrm {O(\frac{1}{12}M^3+\frac{3}{4}tM^2+MN+M )} \end{matrix}\right.\)
Improved BGS-Net \(\left\{ \begin{matrix} a)\quad \mathrm {O(\frac{4+3k_N}{24} M^3+\frac{4k_F+(k_N-2)m_{UE}+2+3t}{4}M^2+(N+m_{UE}^2+t)M )} \\ \quad b)\quad \mathrm {O(\frac{1+3k_N}{12} M^3+\frac{4k_F+2(k_N-2)m_{UE}+2+3t}{4}M^2+(N+2m_{UE}^2+t )M )} \end{matrix}\right.\)