- Research Article
- Open Access
Wavelength- and Time-Selective Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Using Time-Frequency Domain Processing
© Tsuyoshi Konishi et al. 2010
Received: 26 December 2009
Accepted: 19 March 2010
Published: 29 April 2010
We propose and demonstrate a wavelength- and time-selective reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) using time-frequency domain processing. The proposed ROADM is realized by allocating wavelength channels and time slots to corresponding 2D spatial channels on a MEMS optical switch. Experimental results show the wavelength- and time-selective drop operation for a signal with equivalent 3.2 Tb/s (0.64 channels), and the reconfigurability by the switching operation of the MEMS optical switch.
Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) are the key elements for building the next-generation dynamically reconfigurable optical networks . ROADMs are required for the add/drop and cut-through of individual or multiple wavelength-division multiplexed channels and time-division multiplexed slots at the network nodes [1, 2]. Besides, the combination of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) technologies has become the fundamental scheme of the recent transmission system which allows the total transmission capacity of over 20 Tb/s . Therefore, to achieve more flexible and scalable networks, ROADMs should have add/drop and cut-through functions for not only wavelength channels but also time slots. Since such a simultaneous treatment of 2-D multiplexed signals employing OTDM and WDM technologies (OTDM/WDM signals) is equivalent to time-frequency domain processing, ROADMs for OTDM/WDM signals should be developed based on it. Up to now, the innovative proposals of time-selective ROADMs are very few despite their needs [2, 4]. In contrast, there have been various proposals on wavelength-selective ROADMs . Especially, diffraction-grating-based free-space dispersive optics coupled to a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical switch are most mature technologies . An optical switch based on free-space optics plays an important role in such ROADMs with respect to stability, scalability, compactness, and low insertion loss. In addition, recently, a two-dimensional (2-D) spatial switching device, which is a promising configuration for further integration, has been actively developed . OTDM/WDM signals can be treated as independent multiple-bits signals in the time-frequency domain (2-D space as mathematical picture) [8, 9]. In this sense, it is natural that each demultiplexed unit bit in an OTDM/WDM signal can be fed on a 2-D spatial switching device for individual processing. For the realization of a wavelength- and time-selective ROADM with the full advantages of 2-D spatial switching devices, 2-D time-space conversion techniques [10–13] are inevitably indispensable for spatial allocation of wavelength channels and time slots. Since this 2-D time-space conversion technique is based on time-frequency transform, it is expected to utilize unique features derived from time-frequency domain processing too.
In this paper, we propose a wavelength- and time-selective ROADM using 2-D time-space conversion and a MEMS optical switch based on time-frequency domain processing. We experimentally demonstrate the drop and cut-through operations for the proposed ROADM because an add function of the proposed ROADM can be easily achieved.
2. Principle and Experimental Setup
Here, we focus on verification of drop and cut-through operations and the reconfigurability of the proposed ROADM because insertion of wavelength channels and time slots for add operation can be also achieved by setting up almost the same optical system for drop and cut-through operations.
3. Experimental Results and Discussion
Next, to verify drop and cut-through operations of the used MEMS optical switch, we focused on two spatial channels. Figure 4(a) shows the spatial distribution of selected spatial channels for drop or cut-through operations. Spatial channels are corresponding to ( , ) and ( , ) in Figure 4(a). To verify the wavelength- and time-selective drop and cut-through operation, we measured the temporal waveform and the spectrum of dropped channels which are corresponding to ( , ) and ( , ). The temporal waveform and the spectrum of ( , ) and ( , ) are described in Figures 4(b) and 4(c), respectively. From these results, we could confirm the wavelength- and time-selective drop and cut-through operations of the proposed ROADM. In the experiment for drop and cut-through operations, we used 5 wavelength channels in a four-bit ultrashort pulse sequence of a 1.56 ps interval as an input signal. The operation speed of drop and cut-through operations can be estimated to equivalent 3.2 Tb/s (0.64 Tb/s 5 channels) capacity because these operations themselves do not need reconfigure operation.
To verify the reconfigure operation, we changed the dropped wavelength channels and time slots by changing switching condition of a MEMS optical switch. The spatial distribution, temporal waveform, and the spectrum of ( , ) and ( , ) are shown in Figures 5(a), 5(b), and 5(c), respectively. From these results, we could confirm reconfigure operation of the proposed ROADM compared with the result in Figure 4.
Finally, we measured response of reconfigure operation by the MEMS optical switch used. To measure the response speed for reconfigure operation, ( , ) was coupled into the MEMS optical switch. The reconfigured signals of on-state and off-state were directly detected by two PIN-photodetectors (ET-4000, ET-2030; Electro-Optics Technology, Inc.) and captured by an oscilloscope (Infinium; Agilent (HP)), respectively. The measurement results are shown in Figure 6. Ch.1 and ch.2 were corresponding to the dropped signal and the cut-through signal, respectively. Here, we set on-state signal of ( , ) as the dropped signal and the off-state signal of ( , ) as the cut-through signal. The horizontal scales of Figures 6(a) and 6(b) were 20 ms/div. and 2 ms/div. From these results, the operation speed of reconfigure operation by a MEMS optical switch could be estimated to be about 1 ms.
In these experiments, we verified the operation of the proposed ROADM using a light source in a near-infrared band. The operation in an optical communication band will demand a few changes of devices such as a time-gating device, lens, and grating. Among the most important is a time-gating device. In the proposed ROADM, we utilized an SFG process in a B.B.O crystal as a time gate for a serial-to-parallel conversion. A B.B.O crystal has relatively a low SFG efficiency in an optical communication band. In addition, an SFG process inherently causes a wavelength conversion of an input signal. If we adopt the proposed ROADM to actual optical networks, we should utilize an SFG-NLC which has high SFG efficiency in an optical communication band, and the converted wavelength should be turned back to an available one. As the promising devices to fill those needs, a 2-adamantylamino-5-nitropyridine (AANP) as a high SFG efficiency device has been reported . And, a cascaded SFG and difference-frequency-generation-(DFG-) based highly-efficient wavelength conversion in a periodically poled LiNb (PPLN) has been also reported . These devices can be applied to the proposed ROADM.
We experimentally demonstrated drop and cut-through operations for a 0.64 Tb/s 5 channels OTDM/WDM signal with the proposed wavelength- and time-selective ROADM. In addition, the reconfigure operation of switching condition by a MEMS optical switch shows about 1 ms switching response. To adopt the proposed ROADM to actual optical networks, the previously reported highly-efficient time-gating device and the wavelength converter can be applied to our proposed ROADM. Our proposed ROADM can introduce a bitwise adaptive signal compensation technique which is one of the unique techniques derived from time-frequency domain processing too . In addition, our proposed ROADM could be used for a pulse synthesizer to investigate a photoresponse of biomaterials in the field of laser spectroscopy.
- Shankar R, Florjańczyk M, Hall TJ, Vukovic A, Hua H: Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability. Optics Communications 2007, 279(1):94-100. 10.1016/j.optcom.2007.07.022View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clausen AT, Oxenlowe L, Siahlo A, Seoane J, Jeppesen P: Expansion of point-to-point OTDM systems to a ring network. Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC '04), 2004 Th2.6.3Google Scholar
- Masuda H, Sano A, Kobayashi T, et al.:20.4-Tb/s ( Gb/s) Transmission over 240 km using Bandwidth-Maximized Hybrid Raman/EDFAs. Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC '07), 2007 PDP20Google Scholar
- Seoane J, Clausen AT, Oxenløwe LK, Galili M, Tokle T, Jeppesen P: Enabling technologies for OTDM networks at 160 Gbit/s and beyond. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS '05), October 2005, Sydney, Australia 81-82. MG1Google Scholar
- Keyworth BP: ROADM subsystems & technologies. Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC/NFOEC '05), March 2005, Anaheim, Calif, USA 3: 45-48. OWB5Google Scholar
- Khan SA, Riza NA: Demonstration of the MEMS digital micromirror device-based broadband reconfigurable optical add-drop filter for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing systems. Journal of Lightwave Technology 2007, 25(2):520-526.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yano M, Yamagishi F, Tsuda T: Optical MEMS for photonic switching—compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2005, 11(2):383-394.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cohen L: Time-frequency distributions—a review. Proceedings of the IEEE 1989, 77(7):941-981. 10.1109/5.30749View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shafi I, Ahmad J, Shah SI, Kashif FM: Techniques to obtain good resolution and concentrated time-frequency distributions: a review. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2009, 2009:-43.Google Scholar
- Konishi T, Ichioka Y: Ultrafast image transmission by optical time-to-two-dimensional-space-to-time-to-two-dimensional-space conversion. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 1999, 16(5):1076-1088. 10.1364/JOSAA.16.001076View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oshita Y, Konishi T, Ichioka Y: Ultrafast time-to-two-dimensional-space conversion system using SHG crystal. Optical Review 2002, 9(4):141-145. 10.1007/s10043-002-0141-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oshita Y, Konishi T, Yu W, Itoh K, Ichioka Y: Application of ultrafast time-to-two-dimensional-space-to-time conversion (II): time-varying spectral control for arbitrary ultrafast signal reshaping. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 2004, 16(2):623-625. 10.1109/LPT.2003.821094View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Konishi T, Oshita Y, Yu W, Furukawa H, Itoh K, Ichioka Y: Application of ultrafast time-to-two-dimensional-space-to-time conversion (I): time-varying spectral modulation for arbitrary ultrafast signal generation. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 2004, 16(2):620-622. 10.1109/LPT.2003.822240View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu W, Oshita Y, Toyota H, Konishi T, Yotsuya T, Ichioka Y: Development of deep gratings for wavelength dispersion applications. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2003, 42(6):3434-3437.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tomaru S, Matsumoto S, Kurihara T, Suzuki H, Ooba N, Kaino T: Nonlinear optical properties of 2-adamantylamino-5-nitropyridine crystals. Applied Physics Letters 1991, 58(23):2583-2585. 10.1063/1.104829View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu C-Q, Chen B: Cascaded wavelength conversions based on sum-frequency generation and difference-frequency generation. Optics Letters 2004, 29(3):292-294. 10.1364/OL.29.000292View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Konishi T, Oshita Y, Itoh K: Ultrafast optical distortion equalizer using time-frequency domain processing. Journal of Lightwave Technology 2006, 24(7):2693-2700.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.