 Research Article
 Open Access
Nyquist Filters with Alternative Balance between Time and FrequencyDomain Parameters
 Marek Bobula^{1}Email author,
 Aleš Prokeš^{1} and
 Karel Daněk^{2}
https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/903980
© Marek Bobula et al. 2010
 Received: 20 March 2010
 Accepted: 1 October 2010
 Published: 28 October 2010
Abstract
Designing matched pulse shaping filters with their cascade satisfying the Nyquist condition for minimum intersymbol interference constitutes an important task for almost all digital data radio transceivers processing an incoming data signal on the samplebysample basis. Despite their practical importance, there are only few sets of Nyquist filter definitions and design techniques to devise digital filter coefficients available for a designer. In this paper we propose a set of Nyquist filters that balance the time and frequencydomain parameters in favor of a filter stopband attenuation and residual intersymbol interference compared with the already existing Nyquist filter sets. Using a number of filter examples, this paper shows that the proposed Nyquist filters can be a good option for applications that need to fulfill strict limits of adjacent and alternate channel power attenuation while providing a low level of residual intersymbol interference and group delay of the digital filter.
Keywords
 Amplitude Frequency Characteristic
 Timing Jitter
 Modulation Filter
 Side Lobe Level
 Intersymbol Interference
1. Introduction
For a minimum doublesided signal bandwidth equal to the Nyquist frequency , where is the modulation symbol period, the Nyquist condition yields a unique solution with its time representation being a sinc pulse. For the signal bandwidth exceeding the Nyquist frequency, innumerable filter characteristics should exist [1]. However, to the best of the present authors' knowledge, there are only two sets of filter frequency responses explicitly defined by their continuous piecewise function definitions [4, 5]. The first one is the wellknown raised cosine (RC) filter. In spite of their practical importance there are only few design techniques that can be used to directly devise a matched combination of digital Nyquist filters. The Matlab software and its Digital Filter Design application [6] provide Nyquist filters based on a truncated version of the (square root) raised cosine filter. Such filters create a single balance between the time and frequencydomain parameters. Additional weighting window can be used to compromise the outofband suppression for the excess bandwidth; however the coefficients of square root filter version cannot be explicitly calculated and for most of the windows, the minimum excess bandwidth is limited by the equivalent noise bandwidth of the window being used [7]. When the same design approach is used to calculate the coefficients of the square root RC filter directly, the residual ISI is increasing rapidly, since the design technique significantly violates the first Nyquist condition. Other techniques for designing the pulse shaping filters that have been reported are based on optimization techniques with a specific objective function such as maximizing the robustness against timing jitter [2, 3, 8–10] minimizing the duration of the impulse response [11–13] or minimizing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) at the transmitter filter output [14]. Besides the complex way of calculating the filter coefficients, filters that are obtained by optimization techniques are usually of nonlinear phase [11, 12] or they cannot be directly partitioned into matched filter pairs [2, 3, 8–10, 15–17] having linear phase characteristic. The same holds true for the IIR Nyquist filters as discussed in [17, 18]. The most recent methods for designing Nyquist filters are based on linear programming technique [8–10, 16]. The latest and a wellwritten reference along this line concerning with the problem of designing matched pairs of digital Nyquist ( ) filters with balanced performance and linear phase characteristic can be found in [19]. The method is based on numerical calculation and does not provide an exact definition of the filter characteristic, which complicates the design of matched filter pairs with different values of the group delay parameter and oversampling ratio. However, it offers a wide range of communication filters and will also be used for comparison in this paper.
If the time and frequencydomain parameters of the raised cosine filter are taken as a standard, the aim of this paper is to formulate an alternative Nyquist filter definition that reasonably balances the parameters in favor of filter stopband attenuation, which is directly related to an adjacent channel power as one of the most critical parameters of the several practical applications. Giving a number of filter examples, this paper also provides a detailed comparison of the proposed filters and the existing Nyquist filter sets.
2. Nyquist Filters Design Analysis
 (i)
The length of the impulse response should be kept as small as possible to minimize the implementation cost and the propagation delay of the DSP part of the radio transceiver.
 (ii)
The Nyquist criterion should be satisfied as closely as possible to minimize intersymbol interference.
 (iii)
At the transmitter side, the primary issue is the transmission bandwidth defined by the adjacent channel power requirements. Thus the adjacent channel and alternate channel power limits dictate the stopband attenuation of the transmitter filter .
 (iv)
The lower the magnitude of the impulse response sidelobes the better is the eye opening, hence the better timing jitter immunity can be reached [3].
In several applications, there is also a demand to minimize the peaktoaverage power ratio of the transmitted pulses [14, 19]. Such an optimization of the transmitter and receiver filters yields a filter pair that is no longer mutually matched and therefore it is not considered in this work.
The lower the rolloff factor, the narrower is the occupied bandwidth of the signal. However, with a low rolloff factor the original modulation (modulated) signal becomes more vulnerable to timing jitter as the eye pattern of the received signal narrows down and becomes practically almost undetectable for the rolloff factor equaling zero. The second negative effect resulting from lowering of the rolloff factor is related to the practical aspects of the digital filter design and that is the length of the filter impulse response or the decay of its tails to zero. The lower the rolloff factor, the longer the impulse response of the raised cosine filter has to be taken into account when designing a digital filter with comparable stopband attenuation.
The excess bandwidth parameter can be used to trade off the occupied bandwidth and the time duration of the pulse. In both definitions (6) and (7) the excess bandwidth is assumed to be lower than 100%. Although there are Nyquist filters with the excess bandwidth exceeding 100% [20], they are not a primary concern of this work.
where is the number of samples per one modulation symbol.
3. Nyquist Filter Formulation
A closer analysis of (5) unveils the fact that the frequency response of the RC filter is a convolution of a rectangular pulse of duration and a raised cosine window modified by the rolloff parameter.
Thus, when comparing both filters (Section 5) the RC filter will have an equivalent excess bandwidth (15) adjusted by the value of the parameter.
and is a train of unit impulses. In order to keep the notation simple the coefficients of the Nyquist filter impulse response have been denoted .
can be used for the transmitter and receiver filter directly, since the impulse response is symmetrical and therefore linear phase.
It is important to note that all the definitions of the Nyquist and square root Nyquist filters either in the frequency or the time domain were given in their noncausal form and thus zero phase characteristics were implicitly assumed.
4. Nyquist Filter Evaluation Criteria
and to end at the normalized frequency .
5. Matched Nyquist Filters Evaluation
Numerical values of [dB], [dB], [dB]. Square root RC filter versus square root Nyquist filter. The oversampling factor is fixed and the group delay parameter and rolloff parameter of the filters vary.
Square Root RC Filter/Square Root Nyquist Filter;  


 0.2  0.25  0.3  0.35  0.4  0.45  0.5 
 0.027  0.034  0.040  0.047  0.054  0.061  0.068  
 0.227  0.284  0.340  0.397  0.454  0.511  0.568  
5  [dB]  0.1  5.9  10.9  8.8  8.0  8.6  8.4 
[dB]  −4.2  5.9  6.7  0.6  7.8  5.2  2.6  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.7  
6  [dB]  4.2  10.8  8.5  8.2  8.6  7.5  6.8 
[dB]  3.9  6.8  4.6  6.6  4.3  5.9  11.3  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.7  
7  [dB]  9.9  8.9  8.3  8.4  7.2  6.8  5.8 
[dB]  10.4  2.0  6.7  3.8  11.4  10.4  6.6  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.8  
8  [dB]  10.2  8.0  8.6  7.2  6.8  5.2  4.5 
[dB]  5.0  7.6  4.3  10.9  10.6  7.1  8.2  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.8 
Numerical values of [dB], [dB], [dB]. Square root RC filter versus square root Nyquist filter. The group delay parameter of the filters is fixed and the oversampling factor varies.
Root Raised Cosine Filter/Root Nyquist Filter;  


 0.2  0.25  0.3  0.35  0.4  0.45  0.5 
 0.027  0.034  0.040  0.047  0.054  0.061  0.068  
 0.227  0.284  0.340  0.397  0.454  0.511  0.568  
4  [dB]  4.6  10.8  8.4  8.3  8.6  7.4  6.8 
[dB]  4.3  6.5  5.8  6.4  4.1  7.1  10.9  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.8  
5  [dB]  4.2  10.8  8.5  8.2  8.6  7.5  6.8 
[dB]  3.9  6.8  4.6  6.6  4.3  5.9  11.3  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.7  
6  [dB]  4.1  10.8  8.6  8.2  8.6  7.6  6.8 
[dB]  3.7  7.0  3.7  6.7  4.4  5.1  11.5  
[dB]  −0.7  −0.9  −1.2  −1.5  −1.9  −2.3  −2.7 
Numerical values of [dB], [dB], [dB]. Square root " " filter versus square root Nyquist filter. The oversampling factor is fixed and the group delay parameter of the filters varies.
Square Root "B" Filter/Square Root Nyquist Filter;  


 0.2  0.25  0.3  0.35  0.4  0.45  0.5 
 0.027  0.034  0.040  0.047  0.054  0.061  0.068  
 0.227  0.284  0.340  0.397  0.454  0.511  0.568  
5  [dB]  8.2  15.4  19.5  18.2  19.6  19.9  19.1 
[dB]  3.2  8.8  6.9  12.8  13.4  8.3  10.1  
[dB]  −2.2  −2.9  −3.8  −4.9  −6.1  −7.3  −8.3  
6  [dB]  13.7  15.4  18.3  19.9  19.5  19.4  13.0 
[dB]  5.5  12.3  14.7  11.1  7.4  15.1  17.5  
[dB]  −2.2  −1.5  −3.9  −5.0  −6.1  −7.3  −6.6  
7  [dB]  18.8  18.3  13.1  19.3  19.8  19.6  18.5 
[dB]  11.9  12.2  11.7  8.4  18.9  14.8  17.9  
[dB]  −2.2  −3.0  −2.4  −5.0  −6.2  −7.4  −8.4 
Numerical values of [dB], [dB], [dB]. Square root Nyquist ( ) filter versus square root Nyquist filter. The parameter is fixed and the group delay parameter of the filter varies; and are the design parameters of the iteration algorithm [19].
Square Root Nyquist ( )/Square Root Nyquist filter  


 

 0.5  1  2  10  0.5  1  2  10 
0.25 0.034  [dB]  −1.2  −0.5  −0.3  0.0  −0.1  0.1  0.1  0.2 
[dB]  1.4  −2.6  −5.0  −6.6  3.5  −1.3  −4.6  −6.9  
[dB]  0.0  0.1  0.2  −0.2  −0.3  −0.3  −0.2  −0.2  

 

 0.5  1  2  10  0.5  1  2  10 
0.25 0.034  [dB]  −2.6  −2.2  −2.1  −1.0  1.1  0.6  0.3  0.9 
[dB]  −0.1  −3.1  −4.1  −5.2  8.5  3.2  −1.1  −5.0  
[dB]  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.1  −0.4  −0.1  0.0  0.0  

 

 0.5  1  2  10  0.5  1  2  10 
0.25 0.034  [dB]  −9.6  −9.3  −9.3  −4.9  4.6  4.7  4.6  3.6 
[dB]  −1.4  −2.2  −2.5  −4.1  11.8  6.4  1.6  −5.0  
[dB]  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.3  −0.9  −0.4  −0.3  −0.1 
6. Conclusion
As has been shown in this paper, the conflicting requirements placed on the design of the digital matched Nyquist filter pair make the task complicated. From this point of view, the typical truncated raised cosine filter represents a single balance between the time and frequencydomain parameters. The Nyquist filter set, which was defined throughout this paper, enlarges the family of Nyquist filters, and when compared with the truncated square root raised cosine filter cascade, it strikes the balance towards the frequency domain parameters while reaching a low level of residual intersymbol interference. It does so at the cost of a higher side lobes level of the impulse response. An exact symbolic definition of the Nyquist filter in the frequency domain gives the designer scope to choose freely the arbitrary filter parameters such as equivalent excess bandwidth, group delay and oversampling parameters and derive coefficients for either the "normal" or the square root filter variants. The filters generated are of linearphase having symmetrical impulse responses, which directly contribute to efficient hardware realization structures.
Declarations
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation under project no. 102/08/0851.
Authors’ Affiliations
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