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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Real-Time Recognition of Percussive Sounds by a Model-Based Method

  • 1,
  • 2Email author,
  • 2 and
  • 1
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing20102011:291860

  • Received: 22 September 2010
  • Accepted: 26 November 2010
  • Published:


Interactive musical systems require real-time, low-latency, accurate, and reliable event detection and classification algorithms. In this paper, we introduce a model-based algorithm for detection of percussive events and test the algorithm on the detection and classification of different percussive sounds. We focus on tuning the algorithm for a good compromise between temporal precision, classification accuracy and low latency. The model is trained offline on different percussive sounds using the expectation maximization approach for learning spectral templates for each sound and is able to run online to detect and classify sounds from audio stream input by a Hidden Markov Model. Our results indicate that the approach is promising and applicable in design and development of interactive musical systems.


  • Markov Model
  • Classification Accuracy
  • Hide Markov Model
  • Expectation Maximization
  • Event Detection

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Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Computer Engineering, Boğaziçi University, Bebek, 34342 İstanbul, Turkey
Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 13000, 00076 Aalto, Finland


© Umut Şimşekli et al. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.