Efficient compressive sampling of spatially sparse fields in wireless sensor networks
© Colonnese et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 17 January 2013
Accepted: 18 July 2013
Published: 12 August 2013
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), i.e., networks of autonomous, wireless sensing nodes spatially deployed over a geographical area, are often faced with acquisition of spatially sparse fields. In this paper, we present a novel bandwidth/energy-efficient compressive sampling (CS) scheme for the acquisition of spatially sparse fields in a WSN. The paper contribution is twofold. Firstly, we introduce a sparse, structured CS matrix and analytically show that it allows accurate reconstruction of bidimensional spatially sparse signals, such as those occurring in several surveillance application. Secondly, we analytically evaluate the energy and bandwidth consumption of our CS scheme when it is applied to data acquisition in a WSN. Numerical results demonstrate that our CS scheme achieves significant energy and bandwidth savings with respect to state-of-the-art approaches when employed for sensing a spatially sparse field by means of a WSN.
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consist of autonomous, cooperative sensors spatially deployed over a geographical area, with applications ranging from surveillance  and localization systems [2, 3], to environmental monitoring for physical field sensing and disaster prevention [4, 5]. WSN nodes typically acquire the data and communicate them to a node named fusion center (FC), which stores the sensors’ readings or forwards them through wired network infrastructures for further processing.
The availability of energy-efficient algorithms for data gathering towards the FC is particularly relevant when the monitoring network is deployed on a large geographical area (e.g., a forest), where highly efficient routing protocols are required for a sustainable network lifetime. Energy efficiency is also relevant in those environments where battery recharge or substitution may be unworkable (e.g., in underwater networks) [6, 7]. On the other hand, efficient exploitation of available bandwidth is an important concern in bandwidth-limited or interference-limited environments.
The unifying sampling and compression approach of compressive sampling (CS)  is definitely well suited to resource-limited WSNs’ applications. CS-based techniques for energy-efficient WSN data gathering have been recently investigated, with particular reference to the trade-off between reconstruction accuracy and data gathering cost . A highly efficient approach is provided by random sensing (RS), where at each observation time, only a randomly drawn subset of sensors acquires data and transmits them to the FC, typically using single-hop links. From a theoretical point of view, RS and CS share conditions and procedures for signal reconstruction. An energy- and bandwidth-efficient RS procedure appears in .
WSN monitoring applications are often faced with acquisition of spatially sparse signals. A typical example is that of temperature-monitoring sensor networks for anomalous event (e.g., fire) detection: in the early stages of abnormal system behavior, in which the event is hopefully detected, the field is characterized by one or more small spots at levels largely different from the surroundings, and it can be modeled as a spatially sparse signal. RS schemes, such as those analyzed in , poorly perform in sampling signals that are naturally sparse in the spatial domain since the actual number of measurements required to reconstruct the field increases and the RS bandwidth/energy efficiency deteriorates.
We introduce a novel CS matrix and analytically demonstrate that it satisfies the CS conditions for sparse signal reconstruction.
We analytically evaluate the performance, in terms of energy and bandwidth efficiency, of a WSN data gathering scheme based on the CS matrix presented herein.
We show that, on spatially sparse fields, our CS scheme outperforms selected RS and CS state-of-the-art ones in terms of both energy and bandwidth efficiency.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the WSN system model, Section 3 briefs the CS basics, and Section 4 discusses related works on CS/RS acquisition in WSN. In Section 5 we illustrate our original CS scheme, and in Section 6 we apply it to a WSN and analyze the related energy consumption and bandwidth occupancy. Section 7 presents numerical results assessing that our CS scheme outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in terms of bandwidth/energy efficiency. Section 8 concludes the paper.
2 System model and network scenario
where, for the sake of simplicity, we have dropped the temporal variable and have set the horizontal and vertical inter-sensor distances equal to d. Then, the sensors implement a suitable dissemination protocol to forward the measured value to the FC. The FC collects all the data from the sensors so as to reconstruct a representation of the overall field z [n 1,n 2].
Efficient data dissemination towards the FC is widely debated in the literature since energy efficiency affects the network lifetime, especially relevant in scenarios where the deployment of sensors is difficult or expensive, whereas bandwidth efficiency enables WSN monitoring in bandwidth-limited media, e.g., underwater, or in geographical areas where different sensor networks coexist. CS and RS paradigms provide a theoretical framework for highly efficient field monitoring, provided that the monitored data are sparse in a suitable domain. We briefly recall in Sections 3 and 4 the basics of CS and the related work on CS and RS application in WSN, respectively.
3 An introduction to compressive sampling
The vector is sparse if the number of its non-zero samples is restrained compared to its own dimension N; rigorously, z is said to be K-sparse if the number of non-zero components is K, either in the spatial or in a transformed domain (e.g., Fourier, wavelet, etc.). CS provides a framework for sensing and compression of a sparse signal.
Φ being a suitable measurement matrix of size M × N.
It is proven  that, for values of δ small enough, sparse signals can be perfectly recovered from compressive sensing measurements. In , the authors show that the RIP property is verified when the measurement energy ||Φ z||2 is more and more concentrated, in probability, around the value as far as the number of measurements increases.
or by a greedy iterative pursuit of the support of z; examples of this latter approach are provided by the orthogonal matching pursuit  and the compressive sampling matching (CoSaMP) algorithms .
In (2), we recognize that randomly sampling the components of z and collecting them in y is equivalent to realizing CS using a particular sensing matrix; therefore, many CS theory results apply to RS, too. Both RS and CS techniques have been considered for application in WSNs.
4 Related works
Efficient sensing and data gathering in WSNs by means of CS- and RS-based techniques have aroused lively interest in recent literature. In , a CS-based distributed communication architecture is exploited to minimize the latency for information retrieval under a favorable power-distortion trade-off, whereas in , a CS-based sensing and data gathering procedure is analyzed for the case of network routing tree topologies. In , maximization of large-scale WSN lifetime is pursued by means of a fully distributed algorithm according to which each sensor autonomously performs classical or compressive sampling in order to reduce the number of transmitted packets.
In , the authors analyze a RS and multi-hop data gathering scheme. In this scheme, only randomly selected nodes measure the field and transmit their readings to the FC through specific multi-hop paths. While a sensor reading is routed towards the FC, its value is combined with the ones sensed by the sensors in the path, so that each random projection provided to the FC is built by accumulating randomly weighted sensor readings along a network path. Energy efficiency is pursued if the number of nodes contributing to each projection is low.
In , a peculiar form of the CS sensing matrix is proven to exhibit good reconstruction properties while still being able to reduce the number of inter-sensor transmissions. The structure of the sensing matrix, originally designed for WSNs with chain topology, is viable of an extension to more complex scenarios, provided that suitably tree-structured routing paths are designed from the exterior of the network towards the FC.
Recently, in  a RS-based sensor network framework for underwater systems has been introduced. Differently from the works in [9, 16, 17], a single-hop network is considered, where the sensors directly communicate with the FC. Every sampling interval Δt, each sensor senses the field and transmits it directly to the FC with probability p. The sensing probability p is suitably chosen in order to let the FC acquire sufficiently many data for field reconstruction. The approach in  favorably merges the RS procedure with a random access protocol, thus obtaining a significant reduction in both the consumed energy and the occupied bandwidth. The main reasons why the above discussed methods achieve significant performances in efficient use of network resources are either in the fact that, during a sampling interval, only a subset of the sensors measures the field by means of RS or in the fact that CS acquisition is actually realized jointly with the routing procedure.
Recent studies [16, 18] suggest that in the case of spatially sparse signals, the energy/bandwidth of RS and CS efficiency deteriorates since reconstruction accuracy is guaranteed only when a large number of sensors contribute to the measurements. In , the authors remark how difficult it is to design a RS matrix suited to sparse signals and still allowing an efficient network routing. In , it is pointed out that, on spatially sparse signals, CS techniques still guarantee reconstruction accuracy but at an increased number of measurements (e.g., M up to 50% of N), whereas for the same values of M and N, RS only opportunistically achieves reconstruction.
The problem of efficient CS data routing from spatially localized signals is addressed in . Therein, the authors of  propose to leverage the so-called transport cost, that is, the energy wasted to disseminate CS measurement towards the FC via multi-hop paths, by clustering the network nodes in non-overlapping sets, each one responsible for one or more CS measurements. In order to assure perfect reconstruction, the sensors’ clusterization is selected depending on the sparsifying basis under which the field is sensed. The clusterization corresponds to a sparse structure in the sensing matrix, and it is the starting point to allow energy savings in the overall sensing procedure, realized by a centralized algorithm. The procedure is designed for spatially localized signals, which are sparse in a spatially localized basis (e.g., Daubechies, DCT), but it looses efficiency as the signals become more and more sparse in the spatial domain.
On the other hand, in several WSN applications, the sensed field indeed contains local fluctuations and abnormal readings, and it is well modeled as a spatially sparse signal. This motivated us to concern ourselves with the design of a sensing matrix suited to spatially sparse signals, as described in the following section.
5 CS using Radon-like random projections
In a nutshell, we aim at devising a sensing matrix that represents a spatially sparse field z in a domain such that dropping N − M components does not prevent signal reconstruction. Recalling that the Radon transform has the dual properties of (1) compressing spatial domain straight lines into transform domain pulses  and (2) expanding spatial discrete pulses into as many non-zero values as the number of considered Radon projections , we recognize that the Radon transform provides a mean for redundant representation of sparse signals built by spatially isolated pulses. Thereby, we resort to a spatially sparse signal CS scheme inspired by the Radon projection computation.
Expressions (4) to (6) represent randomly weighted accumulations of z[n 1,n 2] over ridge paths. Let us now generalize the above expressions by regarding them as obtained by column-wise accumulation of a suitably rotated version of the sequence z[n 1,n 2].
for m = 0,…K(p) − 1, p = 0,…P − 1. Since the accumulation in (7) recalls the column-wise accumulations employed in the computation of the discrete Radon transform, we refer to the projections in (7) as Radon-like random projections.
using the random sampling matrix Φ R defined as
Let us remark that, even though the samples contributing to each y component are the same as those that would have contributed to a specific Radon projection of z, due to the random weighting, the measurement vector y is not - and it is not even easily related to - the Radon transform of z.
In the following, we demonstrate that the conditions given by the CS theory for reconstructing z from y stand. Before turning to mathematics, let us observe that if the image z[n 1,n 2] is built by sparse isolated pulses, each pattern contributes, apart from a suitable random weighting, to each one of the P Radon-like random projections . Thereby, the set of P Radon-like random projections is a P-redundant representation of the pulse. This motivated us to formally demonstrate that the Radon-like random projections satisfy the conditions of a CS measurement set.
5.1 Restricted isometry property of the Radon-like sampling matrix
To formally state that the above introduced simplified sampling structure is feasible for accurate field reconstruction, we shall demonstrate that the random measurements y evaluated as in (8) are consistent CS measurements, i.e., they substantially preserve the information of the sampled sequence z[n 1,n 2].
with high probability, then any sparse sequence z can be perfectly recovered from CS measurements y = Φ R z.
The RIP in (11) asserts that the measurement energy is strongly concentrated around the value . Preliminary results on the RIP property of a Radon-like CS matrix appear in . In Appendix 1, we extend these results and, following the approach in , we show that the following property stands.
provided that , C 2 being a suitable constant. From Property 1, the RIP property in (11) immediately follows.
5.2 Further remarks
The sampling matrix Φ R differs from the full sampling matrices usually adopted in CS since it is sparse. In the following, we show how the sparsity of the Radon-like sensing matrix Φ R can be leveraged on to significantly simplify the CS measurement computation in a WSN so as to reduce the consumed energy and employed bandwidth.
The definition of in (7) given above is consistent and useful from an analytical point of view. When turning to the evaluation of in a WSN, the evaluation of is not accomplished, and the measurement computation is realized throughout the data gathering stage.
In , the authors demonstrate the RIP for a different kind of sensing matrix, that is, block diagonal matrices. With respect to the approach in , the proof in Appendix 1 is carried out asymptotically, that is, for M large enough to approximate as the outcome of a Gaussian random variables, and it leverages the hypothesis of a spatially sparse signal, i.e., a signal that is sparse in the canonical basis.
Finally, the concentration inequality (12) guarantees that the sequence z can be recovered from the measurements y with high probability, as far as the number P of considered projections increases. Since CS convergence is assured only in probability, the CS measurement experiment could be repeated. In a WSN, data are periodically sensed and routed to the FC, and a small probability of mis-reconstruction can be tolerated since it can be recovered in the subsequent sampling interval. Furthermore, integration of independently drawn measurements acquired in a WSN during different temporal intervals can be performed at the FC. This interesting research issue is deferred to further studies.
6 Radon-like CS in a WSN
In a WSN application scenario, the P Radon-like projections correspond to randomly weighted sums of the values sensed by different subsets of WSN sensors. The sums can be evaluated using different techniques.
Following the approach in , the sensors within a subset can synchronously transmit their weighted sensed values, and the sum can be realized at the FC by on-air analogical superimposition of received signals. This protocol requires strict control of the power received by the FC from each sensor. Precisely, each sensor node needs to estimate the channel seen towards the FC in order to pre-compensate the transmitted value according to the channel attenuation. Thereby, although feasible in principle, this approach requires a sophisticated processing and tight power control by the sensor nodes.
According to a data gathering paradigm, the projections are computed within the network by a subset of sensors while they are forwarding their sensed values to the FC. The sums in (7) can then be realized by routing and accumulating values of z[n 1,n 2] over suitably tilted paths in the network grid discrete support.
Here we refer to such a data gathering approach, and we infer some consequences from the peculiar sparse structure of the matrix Φ R on the computation procedure. Firstly, we observe that in every row, the non-zero coefficients of the matrix Φ R are arranged so as to obtain as the sum of the values of a column of the rotated image . When collecting the measurement in a WSN, each projection can then be computed by accumulating measurements throughout a specific, suitably tilted, grid path. Secondly, we observe that in every column of the matrix Φ R , there are only P non-zero values. Hence, each value z[i,j] shall contribute only to P out of M projections . When realizing the Radon-like CS in the sensor network grid, each sensor shall transmit its value P times.
The computation of each projection is performed in a distributed way within the WSN, and it requires signaling among grid sensors which are adjacent along a WSN path.
The accumulation along different paths can then be realized in parallel, provided that the distance between contemporaneously signaling nodes is kept large enough.
We now turn to quantifying the energy consumption and bandwidth occupancy required for realizing the Radon-like CS by means of a data gathering procedure in a WSN. In Section 6.1, we evaluate the energy consumption and bandwidth occupancy of the Radon-like CS scheme in a WSN. Next, we compare these results with selected state-of-the-art schemes, namely those of the random sensing approaches described in Section 1, detailed in Section 6.2.
6.1 Radon-like CS efficiency
We now evaluate the allocated bandwidth and consumed energy for entirely collecting the measurements in a time T c in the WSN scenario in Section 2. The actual bandwidth occupation and energy consumption depend not only on the WSN structure but also on the adopted data gathering procedure. Without loss of generality, we refer to the suboptimal data gathering algorithm sketched out in Appendix 2, here briefly summarized for the reader’s convenience.
A deterministic (collision-free) time division multiple access (TDMA) is adopted. Signaling takes place between adjacent nodes only. Parallel transmission of nodes sufficiently apart is considered. In Appendix 2, we evaluate two parameters that directly affect the energy and bandwidth consumption of the data gathering algorithm, namely the total number of single-hop transmissions (N TX) and the total number of time slots (N TS) needed to collect all the sensors’ readings to the FC.
γ P being a scalar factor depending on the adopted P projections. The guidelines for calculating γ P are given in Appendix 2 where we also evaluate the value of γ P for different sets of directions ϑ p .
δ P being a factor depending on the considered projection directions ϑ p . Appendix 2 reports the guidelines for the evaluation of the parameter δ P for different sets of directions ϑ p .
We observe that, as a consequence of the sparsity of the Radon-like sensing matrix, (1) the number of transmission varies only linearly with the network size N, and (2) the algorithm being parallelized, the number of time slots varies linearly with the square root of the network size N. With these results, we are able to evaluate the allocated bandwidth and consumed energy for entirely collecting the measurements in a time T c in the WSN scenario described in Section 2.
Projection evaluation according to the data gathering scheme detailed in Appendix 2 accounts for a series of transmissions among neighboring nodes. The energy spent for a single-hop transmission is given by , with d SH = d or being the distance for horizontally, vertically, and diagonally adjacent nodes (a scale factor depending on the actual transmission parameters, namely the sensitivity at the FC receiver and the transmitter and receiver antenna gains) and the time needed for packet transmission.
The packet duration depends on the design of the selected sensing system. If the overall sensing framework is designed under the system constraint of having a fixed occupied bandwidth B, the packet duration time will be evaluated as with B RL = B.
Such system design choices should be carefully taken into consideration when comparing energy consumption of different schemes possibly comprising different numbers of single-hop transmissions N TX.
6.2 RS efficiency
We now present a few results on the energy and bandwidth consumption of the approaches proposed in . Therein, a RS procedure, allowing only a randomly chosen subset of sensors to acquire the measurement, is coupled with both a TDMA scheme and a random access scheme. Herein we elaborate on these results and add a few details. With respect to the computation in , where the energy consumption for each sensor to transmit to the network sink is approximated by a constant, here we explicitly take into account the dependence of the energy with respect to (w.r.t.) the spatial sensor location. Secondly, therein an approximate relation is established between two key system parameters, namely (1) the minimal fraction of sensing data that must be correctly received at the sink to allow CS reconstruction and (2) the minimal bandwidth. Herein we extend the relation to different ranges of sensing probability, better suited to RS of a spatially sparse field.
In the RS/deterministic access (RD) scheme, the FC randomly chooses a set of M sensors, M being a sufficient number of measurements for satisfactory field reconstructions and broadcasting the addresses of eliged nodes through the network. The selected nodes acquire the measurements and transmit their readings to the FC via a TDMA deterministic access scheme. As in this scheme only M nodes need to share the TDMA frame, the packet transmission time is . Consequently, the occupied bandwidth for the RD scheme is .
The energy consumption and occupied bandwidth performance of the scheme in  need to be addressed in a slightly different way w.r.t. the previous cases. CS theoretic results determine the number M of measurements needed at the FC to correctly restore the sensed field; within an observation time, this constraint corresponds to a required percentage q s of correctly received samples at the FC. Because of possible collisions, the required percentage q s needed at the FC does not translate straightforwardly into a sensing probability p s . In , the authors establish a relationship among the sensing probability p s and the probability q s of correct packet reception and demonstrate that, given q s , a minimum bandwidth B is required in order to assure that a feasible value of p s exists. Thereby, if the available bandwidth is not accurately dimensioned, small values of p s do not provide enough measurements at the FC, whereas large values of p s cause too many collisions.
6.3 Further remarks
Before turning to the numerical performance evaluation, a few remarks are in order. The above analysis has pointed out that the consumed energy and allocated bandwidth adopting the Radon-like CS scheme grow only with the square root of the network size, whereas those of selected state-of-the-art approaches vary with the power N. The impact of these trends on energy consumption depends on all system parameters and mostly on p s . For a spatially sparse field, where p s and consequently q s tend to be high, since a large fraction of sensors shall transmit their values using RS with random access to allow proper reconstruction, a random sensing scheme is prone to exhibit a large energy consumption and bandwidth occupancy. The Radon-like CS scheme then yields a reduced energy consumption for each node, as well as a parsimonious bandwidth use for collecting data over the entire grid. The gain is more and more evident as the network size (i.e., the covered area) increases.
Let us point out that, on non-spatially sparse fields, the conditions for accurate reconstruction, e.g., the values of p s and P, may differ, leading to different relative performances. The investigation of this issue is left for further studies.
The actual gain in terms of energy and bandwidth depends on the constants γ P ,δ P which grow with the number of considered projections. The advantages of the Radon-like CS scheme are expected to be evident on spatially sparse signals, where low values of P (e.g., P = 3) enable reconstruction, whereas the RS data gathering algorithm requires a high percentage of samples to reach the FC in order to achieve satisfying reconstruction results .
As far as the medium access scheme is concerned, the herein-devised Radon-like CS scheme is realized via a TDMA technique, just as the RD scheme. Therefore, it implies an effort of synchronization and scheduling. Nonetheless, different data gathering procedures can be envisaged realizing the Radon-like CS using a random access criterion. This issue is left for further studies. Finally, these results depend on the peculiar structure of the Radon-like sensing matrix Φ R and, although derived for a particular data gathering algorithm, can be generalized to different Radon-like CS measurement computation schemes.
7 Numerical simulations
In this section, we analyze the performance of our Radon-like CS scheme both in terms of reconstruction accuracy and of employed network resources. Firstly, in Section 7.1 we present a few results showing that an accurate reconstruction of a spatially sparse signal can be achieved by the Radon-like CS using a feasible number of Radon-like projections. Secondly, in Section 7.2 we demonstrate the energy and bandwidth gain achievable when adopting the Radon-like CS scheme in a WSN. For fair comparison of the different sensing techniques, we consider their performances under different system parameter settings, respectively corresponding to the case when each of the sensing system is operating at its minimal bandwidth and to the case of packet duration T p fixed for all the schemes. A comprehensive representation of the bandwidth-energy pairs of the different sensing systems is then shown versus the network dimensionality. Finally, we present a few results assessing the performance of Radon-like CS sampling on real-world data.
7.1 Radon-like CS reconstruction accuracy
We have first evaluated the reconstruction accuracy of the Radon-like CS scheme, using different number P of projections, under the assumption of noise-free observations. Specifically, we have tested the reconstruction accuracy when only projections along rows and columns of the network grid are considered (P = 2,M = 128), when projections along the rows, columns, and the π/4-oriented diagonal of the grid are considered (P = 3, M = 255), and finally, also when projections along the 3π/4-oriented diagonal are considered (P = 4, M = 382).
Reconstruction accuracy (MSE) obtained by Radon-like CS and RS schemes ( N = 64 × 64 = 4,096) for different numbers of measurements
ϑ p = 0,π/2,π/4
ϑ p = 0,π/2,±π/4
Radon-like CS – MSE
RS – MSE
For the sake of comparison, we have also evaluated the reconstruction accuracy obtained by the RS  scheme under the same experimental settings. In Table 1 we recognize that, for the selected range of measurements (M ≤ 382), the RS does not allow capturing the sparse nature of the sensed field. To obtain the same reconstruction accuracy of the Radon-like CS scheme, namely a MSE equal to 0.0036, the RS requires to be run with a number of measurements M ≃ 2,500 ≈ 50% N.
Reconstruction accuracy (MSE) obtained by Radon-like CS and RS schemes ( N = 80 × 80 = 6,400) for different numbers of measurements
ϑ p = 0,π/2,π/4
ϑ p = 0,π/2,±π/4
Radon-like CS – MSE
RS – MSE
Reconstruction accuracy (MSE) obtained by the Radon-like CS, noisy measurements ( N = 80 × 80 = 6,400)
ϑ p = 0,π/2,π/4
ϑ p = 0,π/2,±π/4
Radon-like CS – MSE for
Radon-like CS – MSE for
To recap, the above results show that, as a rule of thumb, Radon-like CS requires measurements for representing a spatially sparse field, whereas the RS requires a large percentage of the measurements M RS ≈ α N to be correctly received (e.g., P = 3 and α = 50% in the above experiments). Overall, the Radon-like CS scheme allows sensing and reconstructing of a spatially sparse field with far less measurement w.r.t. state-of-the-art techniques such as the RS presented in .
7.2 Radon-like CS efficiency
The number of measurements chosen is large enough to yield a satisfactory reconstruction accuracy, quantified by a MSE ≤ 10 −3 .
The coherence time of the sensed field is fixed to T c = 2,500s.
The dimension of the transmitted packet is set to L = 1 Kb.
With reference to the experimental setting described in Section 7.1, condition (a1) implies P = 3 projections. We start by computing the energy consumption under the assumption that the occupied bandwidth and, consequently, the packet transmission time T p = L/B are the same for the different schemes.
Let us remark that, under this setting corresponding to a system design choice of having a fixed occupied bandwidth, each scheme requires a different number of transmissions in order to let the FC acquire the needed measurements. Thereby, the overall process of sensing is accomplished in different time intervals by the different data gathering techniques. In these experiments, we have set. Figure 6 reports the energy consumed for different numbers of network sensors N. We recognize that employing the RL scheme drastically reduces the energy consumed by the data gathering algorithm.
For the sake of comparison, in the same figure, we also report the performance of RS, implemented using both a deterministic access scheme (RD in the legend) and the random access scheme (RR in the legend) described in . The occupied bandwidth is computed according to the analysis in Section 6 for the RL, RD, and RR scheme, respectively, under the same assumptions (a1) to (a3). These settings imply p s = 0.5 for the RD scheme and q s = 0.5 for the RR one.
The bandwidth employed for the Radon-like data gathering scheme is significantly reduced w.r.t. the RS, both using deterministic and random access. The above results, obtained by considering different numbers of measurements and equal reconstruction accuracy for the three algorithms, are explained by the efficiency of the Radon-like data collection algorithm, exploiting only single-hop, parallel data transmission.
Finally, we are interested in comparing the resource employed by the different schemes to accomplish the sensing process exactly at the same time. To reach this goal, as the number of single-hop transmissions varies from one scheme to another, the different schemes will have a different packet transmission time and hence will occupy a different bandwidth. In Figure 7, we illustrate the bandwidth-energy scatterplot of the RL, RR, and RD schemes for different network sizes. For RD and RR, we have considered two cases, that is, when 50% and 30% of the sensor readings are required at the FC for satisfactory field reconstruction.
The energy/bandwidth pairs draw different trajectories while the number of nodes N increases. We clearly recognize a systematic energy and bandwidth saving of the RL scheme w.r.t. the competitors. Moreover, both the consumed energy and the occupied bandwidth exhibit far smaller variations with the number of network nodes than what happens with the RD and RR schemes, making the RL approach fully scalable in terms of network nodes.
7.3 Radon-like CS performances on real data sets
Reconstruction performance in a real-data scenario (Zonal Current at Monterey Bay[]) for different thresholding values
MSE against original field
MSE against thresholded field
8.20 × 10−4
6.67 × 10−4
5.89 × 10−4
5.59 × 10−4
The results in Table 4 confirm the effectiveness of the Radon-like scheme in enabling reconstruction of the spatially sparse nature of the sensed thresholded field, achieving MSE as low as 0.0036 for a high threshold value such as t = 0.2. As the thresholding factor, the number of non-zero coefficients in the thresholded image increases, making the Radon-like approach less effective. We would like to emphasize that application of Radon-like sensing matrices to non-sparse data could still be possible by taking into account suitable sparsifying basis, which is left for further studies.
In Figure 11 (right), we report the reconstructed thresholded field after 15 iterations of the CoSaMP algorithm for t = 0.2; the corresponding original thresholded image is reported in Figure 11 (center). Visual inspection of Figure 11 (right) shows how, in spite of the reduced number of measurements and of the restrained energy consumption, the Radon-like scheme is capable of capturing the spatially sparse nature of the reconstructed field. Finally, the approach outlined herein could be enforced by taking into account suitable padding of the data samples that are under the threshold, so as to substitute the zero entries obtained by the reconstruction algorithm with a specific non-zero value, e.g., their spatial mean, thereby reducing the observed MSE.
7.4 Final remarks
In accounting an irregular sampling grid
In exploiting non-straight sampling path.
These conditions may be encountered, for instance, in vehicular networks or citizen sensing networks , w1ere the disposition of the nodes are far from being regular, and the sampling path should adapt to the routing paths, which in turn basically depend on the street and building disposition. To sum up, we consider this contribution as an intermediate step towards finding a general relation between the compressive sensing of a finite innovation rate signal and its realization by efficient routing algorithms in a realistic WSN scenario.
In this paper, we have addressed the efficient compressive sampling of spatially sparse signals in sensor networks. Specifically, we have introduced a peculiar CS sampling scheme for spatially sparse bidimensional signals. We have analytically demonstrated that our scheme satisfies the theoretical conditions required for CS signal reconstruction. Then after devising a distributed data gathering scheme for collecting of the CS measurements in a WSN, we have characterized the scheme both in terms of consumed transmission energy and occupied bandwidth. The scheme outperforms state-of-the-art schemes for spatially sparse fields, and it represents an intermediate step towards the definition of routing procedures well suited to the characteristics of the signal a realistic sensor network is faced with.
a The coherence time T c is defined as the time interval over which the process almost de-correlates in time.
c We also approximate herein the inter-sensor distance in the diagonal direction to d.
Appendix 1 :RIP property of the Radon-like measurements matrix
provided that, C 2 being a suitable constant.
Demonstration The condition in (20) can be demonstrated as follows. Let us consider the sample energy of the measurements. being a sample moment, we invoke here its asymptotical normal distributions . Although this hypothesis is not necessary for the RIP to stand, it allows us to straightforwardly evaluate the minimal number of projections P required for K-sparse field reconstruction, and therefore we retain it in the following.
Thereby, in order to demonstrate (12), it suffices to show that and Var for the case under concern.
Hence, by setting, we get.
The demonstration presented herein proves that the Radon-like CS matrix satisfies the RIP property in the spatial domain, i.e., under the assumption that the sparsifying basis is the canonical basis. The interested reader can find a proof of the RIP property for the Radon-like matrix in any orthonormal non-canonical basis in .
Appendix 2 :Within WSN Radon-like projections’ computation
Let us consider a regular network composed by N = N 1 N 2 sensors as in Figure 1 where, without loss of generality, we assume that N 1 and N 2 are odd valued, i.e.,,, so as to identify a central column where the FC is located.
We discuss a simple suboptimal procedure to collect all the projections to the FC using a TDMA access scheme. Let us subdivide the network into four quadrants, and let us consider first the horizontal projections p H [m], obtained by accumulating randomly weighted values along the network rows. In each quadrant, the data gathering process starts at the outer nodes. The external node in each row measures the field, computes the product of the reading with a randomly selected coefficient, encodes this value in a packet of L bits, and transmits it to the neighboring node in the horizontal direction. The neighboring node, once the packet from the outer node has been received, measures the field, multiplies the reading by the random coefficient, and sums it to the value received by the outer node. The overall process continues until the nodes in the central column are reached by the data flow and are then ready to propagate the projection values to the FC. Once the FC has received the horizontal projection values from the first quadrant, the same operations are serially performed in the three remaining quadrants. The projection values of each quadrant are therefore computed by evaluating partial sums and propagating them towards the nodes in the central column; then the projection values are transmitted to the FC via a multi-hop route along the central column.
transmission to reach the central column for each of the rows
transmissions to propagate the projection value towards the FC along the central column
Let us now evaluate the number of time slots in which the transmissions can be performed. Since signaling occurs between adjacent nodes, the propagation of information on the different rows can be scheduled in parallel flows, provided that a suitable inter-row delay of ν 0 time slots is introduced to prevent interference among neighboring nodes.
The data gathering starts at t 0 = 0, on the first row of the quadrant, i.e., the one comprising the FC. The outermost node transmits its randomly weighted sensed value in the first time slot. In the second time slot, the second node forwards the sum of the received data and its own randomly weighted sensed value. Similarly, each node updates and sends the received partial sum. Thereby, the FC retrieves the accumulation after, with T p being the duration of a time slot.
On the second row, the transmission begins after ν 0 first-row transmission. Then time slots are needed for the partial sum to reach the central column, and one additional time slot is needed to reach the FC. The propagation ends at.
On the i th row, the transmission begins after (i − 1) · ν 0 time slots, and the propagation ends at.
On the ()-th row, transmission to the FC is accomplished at.
The overall protocol for evaluating p H [m] is illustrated in Figure 4.
An important remark is in order. Despite its simplicity, this basic result highlights one of the major advantages of the Radon-like CS scheme. Since the Radon-like projections can be evaluated by means of information propagation on linear paths in the network, the number of single-hop transmissions vary with the product depth and width of the network grid, that is, with the network size N. On the other hand, since only single-hop transmissions are employed, the transmission can be parallelized, and the number of time slots required for computation of an assigned projection set varies with the sum of depth and width of the network grid, that is, with the square root of the network size N. This intrinsic behavior, which holds for different projections’ directions, is the reason why the Radon-like CS scheme will be proven to be both energy- and bandwidth-efficient.
With slight modifications, the above described procedure can be extended to the case of differently tilted paths. For the sake of concreteness, we develop in the following the calculations for ϑ p = 0 (vertical projections), ϑ p = ±π/4 (diagonal projections), which have been considered in the simulations described in this paper.
All the p/4-oriented paths that originate from the nodes lying along the outer row of the quadrant and that reach the FC through either the central row or the central column (solid arrows in Figure 5)
All the p/4-oriented paths that originate from the nodes lying along the outer column of the quadrant and that reach the FC through either the central row or the central column (dashed arrows in Figure 5).
If the quadrant is processed so that we firstly perform the accumulations along the paths in (p1) starting at t 0 = 0 and secondly perform the accumulations along the paths in (p2), then
The first projection value along the paths in (p1) reaches the FC at.
The last projection value along the paths in (p1) reaches the FC at most at.
The first projection value along the paths in (p2) reaches the FC at most at .
The last projection value along the paths in (p2) reaches the FC at most at .
To recap, the Radon-like CS data gathering procedure lets the fusion center collect all the needed measurements in a highly parallelized fashion. Far from being optimal, the data gathering scheme introduced herein allows a significant reduction in both the occupied bandwidth and the consumed energy w.r.t. state-of-the-art data gathering scheme such as the RS introduced in . Further developments of globally optimized Radon-like CS data gathering algorithms are still under investigation.
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