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Table 1 Normalized mean absolute errors (MAE) of centralized and distributed estimation algorithms. A single source field (M=1) with c 1=1, τ 1=1.213, ξ 1=(0.1130,0.2210) is considered and the source parameters estimated from the spatiotemporal samples taken at \(\frac {1}{\Delta t} = 1\) Hz over T=10 s using N=45 sensors, with spatial sensing function families K=1 and K=3. The normalized MAE statistic has been computed with results from 1000 independent trials at different noise levels

From: Physics-driven quantized consensus for distributed diffusion source estimation using sensor networks

  Centralized Distributed (Unquantized) Distributed (Quantized)
  K=1 K=3 K=1 K=3 K=1 K=3
No noise c m 0.0811 0.0683 0.0811 0.0684 0.1017 0.0740
  τ m 0.1375 0.1277 0.1231 0.1128 0.4127 0.1883
  ξ 1,m 0.0439 0.0306 0.0439 0.0306 0.1151 0.0644
  ξ 2,m 0.0285 0.0219 0.0285 0.0219 0.0571 0.0313
20 dB c m 0.4385 0.1025 0.4385 0.1026 0.5939 0.1030
  τ m 0.2794 0.2565 0.2583 0.2267 0.4928 0.2887
  ξ 1,m 0.0861 0.0611 0.0861 0.0620 0.1893 0.0767
  ξ 2,m 0.0600 0.0415 0.0600 0.0415 0.1040 0.0451
10 dB c m 0.2417 0.2027 0.2417 0.2031 0.2785 0.2171
  τ m 0.7132 0.7310 0.6952 0.7102 0.8321 0.7240
  ξ 1,m 0.2081 0.1808 0.2081 0.1874 0.2627 0.1951
  ξ 2,m 0.1135 0.0990 0.1135 0.0995 0.1310 0.1037