RETRACTED ARTICLE: Application of music in relief of driving fatigue based on EEG signals
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing volume 2021, Article number: 89 (2021)
In order to solve the problem of traffic accidents caused by fatigue driving, the research of EEG signals is particularly important, which can timely and accurately determine the fatigue state and take corresponding measures. Effective fatigue improvement measures are an important research topic in the current scientific field. The purpose of this article is to use EEG signals to analyze fatigue driving and prevent the dangers and injuries caused by fatigue driving. We designed the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal acquisition model to collect the EEG signal of the experimenter, and then removed the noise through the algorithm of Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) and independent component analysis (ICA). On the basis of in-depth analysis and full understanding, we learned about the EEG signal of the driver at different driving times and different landscape roads, and provided some references for the study of music in relieving driving fatigue. The results of the study show that in the presence of music, the driver can keep the EEG signal active for more than 2 h, while in the absence of music, the driver’s EEG signal is active for about 1.5 h. Under different road conditions, the driver’s EEG signal activity is not consistent. The β wave and (α + θ)/β ratio of the driver in mountainous roads and grassland road landscape environments are highly correlated with driving time, and β wave is negatively correlated with driving time, and (α + θ)/β is positively correlated with driving time. In addition, the accumulation of changes in the two indicators is also strongly correlated with driving time.
With the rapid development of the contemporary automobile industry, my country's car ownership is increasing year by year, which is bound to bring more traffic accidents. Traffic accidents not only lead to threats to life safety and national property, but also disrupt the order and efficiency of road transportation and cause traffic congestion . Data show that driving fatigue is one of the main causes of traffic accidents, accounting for about 20–40% of the total number of accidents. The probability of traffic accidents caused by fatigue driving is 4–6 times that of normal driving. According to the prediction of the World Health Organization, by 2030, the casualties caused by road traffic accidents will be one of the main causes of human deaths and injuries. How to effectively alleviate and reduce the probability of traffic accidents has become an important task to improve the current road traffic safety . The main factors affecting EEG are age, individual differences, state of consciousness, external stimuli, mental activity, drug influence and brain diseases. Among them, age and individual differences are related to the characteristics of brain biology and genetic psychological factors.
EEG signals have always been used in the detection of driver fatigue. First, collect the driver's EEG signal while driving in real time and obtain the EEG brain wave signal; then, the EEG brain wave of the time domain signal is converted, and then the energy value of the characteristic brain wave in each frequency domain in the brain wave is obtained, and then according to the relative energy is used to determine the degree of fatigue; finally, the fatigue index and fatigue degree are estimated . Driving without the driver can be affected by EEG signals of different frequencies, and our research on EEG signals in different driving states and mental states of drivers will help future development. The use of EEG signals can have different effects on drivers. Periods are monitored in real time, and their fatigue state is understood so that they can be correctly identified . In addition, brain waves, as a highly sensitive index for assessing changes in the human brain's central nervous system, can very efficiently reflect the mental state of the driver during driving.
Experts at home and abroad have many researches on monitoring the fatigue state of drivers through brain waves. Saroj et al. proposed that among various physiological indicators, EEG signal is the most suitable indicator for evaluating fatigue. When the human body is in a relaxed or fatigued state, the delta wave will increase significantly, and theta wave will also increase greatly, indicating that the body’s own Subjective judgment ability and control ability will decrease; when the alpha wave activity decreases, it means that the human body's attention level is decreasing; and when the human body is awake and excited, the beta wave will increase . Papaelis Christos collected the brain waves of 20 drivers when they were fatigued, and used the Karolinka sleep evaluation form to assess the sleep and fatigue status of the drivers. The results showed that when the drivers experienced driving fatigue, different brain waves would have different trends. At the same time, the Kullback–Leibler entropy is significantly reduced. Therefore, it is suggested that brain waves can be used to judge the fatigue state of the driver. Li Zuomin et al. found in the test that there is a U-shaped effect between the change in driving fatigue and the increase in continuous driving time: that is, fatigue occurs slightly when starting work, and the driving fatigue gradually decreases and relieves as the driving time increases. It enters a stable period, during which there is almost no fatigue state; after a period of operation, the driving fatigue Euro starts to rise, until the obvious driving fatigue state appears . Diykh M et al. proposed a fatigue analysis method based on the degree of density to express EEG signals of different frequencies, and effectively distinguished and defined the fatigue state. This method can obtain an accuracy rate of up to 90% under the condition of fewer feature dimensions and training data . Li X et al. used the observation of EEG signals in a real vehicle test in a simple landscape environment of grassland roads to determine the sensitivity indicators of grassland road driving fatigue, and used the driver's EEG signals α/β and (α + θ)/β The ratio of to get the time point of driver fatigue and the EEG reference threshold of awake state and fatigue state . These studies have a certain reference effect for this article, but due to the insufficient number of samples and experiments, there are some errors in the experimental results, which are difficult to reproduce.
The innovation of this paper is (1) the test uses indoor simulation driving test, which requires the same driver to complete 4 consecutive hours of driving tasks in different road landscape environments, and selects highly sensitive EEG indicators to evaluate driving fatigue. (2) Reflect the driver's fatigue degree under different road landscapes through EEG sensitivity indicators. Group analysis of driving fatigue is in different road landscape environments. (3) In the driving fatigue analysis, the EEG index is quantified, and then the EEG index change accumulation is analyzed through the iterative calculation of the EEG index, and the fatigue index change of the driver with or without music is compared. (4) Through multiple sets of fatigue driving experiments, the accuracy of EEG signals was verified, and the risk of fatigue driving was analyzed from the other party, and the infeasibility of fatigue driving was obtained.
2 Application research methods of EEG signals in driving fatigue alleviation
2.1 EEG signals
Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the basic building blocks of the brain. The human brain is composed of approximately 86 billion neurons, and each brain activity is completed by these neurons. When nerve cells are stimulated, the excitement will be conducted on the nerve fibers in the form of electrical signals, and the synthesis of all these electrical signals constitutes the EEG . EEG signals will change as the brain's active state changes. To a certain extent, they contain information about external stimuli or tasks that are being performed. The EEG signal is an important physiological signal of the human body. It has the following characteristics: (1) the signal is extremely weak; the amplitude range is about [0.1, 100] μV; (2) the frequency is low, the composition is complex, and it is composed of a variety of rhythms. (3) Non-stationary and random; (4) large individual differences; (5) high temporal resolution and low spatial resolution.
There are two types of EEG signals: scalp EEG and cortical EEG. Since the acquisition of cortical EEG is invasive, in practical applications, scalp EEG is more widely used . The EEG signal collected in this article is the scalp EEG signal. The frequency range of the EEG signal is mainly [0.5, 100] Hz, which is mainly divided into 5 frequency bands.
Due to the influence of many other factors, the EEG signal has characteristics that the general signal does not have. The details are as follows:
The noise is strong and the signal is weak. Under normal conditions, the EEG signal is very weak, and the amplitude generally does not exceed 0.1 mV. The amplitude of other physiological signals and external interference signals must far exceed the EEG signal. In the process of EEG signal measurement, these non-research signals will cause large errors in the measurement results and reduce the signal-to-noise ratio . Therefore, effective removal of EEG signal noise and improvement of signal-to-noise ratio are important links in EEG signal processing.
Non-stationary, nonlinear and random brains are made up of countless nerve cells connected through nonlinear coupling. The random firing of unit neurons in the brain and the interaction between neurons create the nonlinear characteristics of EEG signals. At the same time, there are obvious differences in EEG signals between different individuals. Even for the same individual, the results at different times under the same state are not the same. Therefore, EEG signals show non-stationarity and randomness.
The frequency range is low and the frequency characteristics are prominent. The frequency range of the EEG signal is mainly concentrated between 0.5 and 30 Hz. It is a low-frequency slow-changing signal, which contains a variety of frequency components, and each frequency component reflects the location of the brain.
EEG signals can be divided into spontaneous EEG signals and evoked EEG signals according to the generation mechanism. The amplitude range of evoked EEG is concentrated in 0.1–10 μV, which is usually buried in spontaneous EEG with higher amplitude . According to the characteristics of spontaneous EEG frequency, clinical and scientific research often divide spontaneous EEG according to frequency into delta wave (0.5–4 Hz), theta wave (4–8 Hz), alpha wave (8–12 Hz), beta wave (12–30 Hz). Among them, δ wave and θ wave are defined as slow waves, and α wave and β wave are defined as fast waves. The characteristics of each rhythm wave are shown in Table 1.
2.2 Brainwave decompression
The EEG signal has the characteristics of strong randomness and weak signal, and it is extremely susceptible to other bioelectric signals and the environment during the collection process. Effectively removing other interference signals in the EEG signal is an important step before signal processing [13, 14]. This article uses the hardware part of the Bluetooth EEG headset to perform simple denoising processing on the collected EEG signals, but it still contains many other noises that cannot be removed by its own device.
The noise in EEG signals can be divided into environmental noise and bioelectrical noise according to the source. Environmental noise mainly includes electrostatic interference, power frequency interference, and noise caused by poor contact between electrodes and the scalp . Bioelectrical noise mainly includes electromyographic signals, ocular signals, etc. The frequency range and amplitude of ocular signals have a large overlap with EEG signals, which is the most important bioelectrical noise.
Common noise removal methods include artifact subtraction, independent component analysis (ICA), wavelet transform (WT) and other methods . However, these denoising methods are not mature enough and lack eye electrical reference, so they cannot be applied to denoising very importantly. At present, multi-channel EEG signal ocular artifact removal method is relatively mature, single-channel EEG signal lacks ocular electrical reference and no better artifact removal method has been proposed . In recent years, the research on single-channel EEG signal electrooculogram artifact removal can be summarized as follows: initially, a threshold or linear filtering method was proposed to remove electrooculogram artifacts from EEG signals, but the effect was not good.
The frequency domain analysis of EEG extracts the brain waves according to the different frequency of the brain waves, and selects the relevant characteristics of the brain waves in a targeted manner. Many characteristics of EEG will be presented in the frequency domain. Using the power spectrum of EEG to estimate EEG is the main method of frequency domain analysis. Based on the change in the amplitude of the brain wave in the time domain, it is transformed into the change in the fluctuation amplitude of the power value in the frequency domain, so that the distribution of brain waves at different frequencies and the corresponding transformation law can be observed intuitively, so the frequency spectrum Comprehensive analysis is widely used in EEG signal processing, but EEG is a regular waveform that fluctuates randomly instead of being steady or showing periodic changes, and it will appear different frequency waves at different times, so the frequency domain alone cannot be exhaustive. Analyze EEG .
In this paper, the denoising processing of EEG signals is shown in Fig. 1. Because the frequency of the EEG signal is mainly concentrated between 0.5 and 30 Hz, the 0.5–40 Hz band-pass filter is first used to remove other environmental interferences such as power frequency interference and electrostatic interference [19, 20]. Aiming at electrooculogram artifacts, an algorithm combining Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) and ICA is proposed to remove. The signal after band-pass filtering is decomposed into 6 components by the VMD algorithm, all the components are input to the ICA system, and then the ICA output channel is judged and separated by the method of sample entropy threshold. Finally, the EEG component is output through the inverse ICA transformation, and the output EEG signal is superimposed and reconstructed as the preprocessed signal . It can be seen from the experimental results that after the EEG signals are collected in the experiment, the effect of sub-modal subdivision will be better than that of the ICA algorithm, and its effect will be more obvious.
2.3 Statistical methods
In recent years, some scholars have proposed that fatigue will have an inhibitory effect on motor neurons and weaken the connections of the brain's neural network. Accordingly, this article intends to analyze the mechanism of driving fatigue from the perspective of causality [22, 23]. Firstly, it introduces the theoretical basis of Granger causality and the new causality method from the perspective of time domain and frequency domain; secondly, it introduces the data processing process, combined with the score value of the Borg fatigue scale, and uses two causality methods to analyze the results. Collect EEG data for calculation and analysis, and finally compare and analyze the two causality methods .
Linear regression is an important statistical analysis method, which is used to determine the quantitative relationship between two or more variables. The advantage of the linear regression method is that it is the most basic and simplest kind of multiple regression analysis. In addition, as long as the model and data used are the same, the only result can be calculated by standard statistical methods. The linear regression model refers to the linear relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variable, which includes the autoregressive model (Autoregressive Model, AR model for short) and the joint regression model (Joint Regressive Model) . Granger causality method and new causality method are based on autoregressive model and joint regression model.
Autoregressive model is a method for processing time series in statistics, and it is widely used in econometrics, informatics and other fields. In the autoregressive model, we use the past value of the variable to predict the value of the variable at the current moment. The current output variable is only related to its own past moment, which is defined as follows:
In the formula, Xt is a time series t = 0,1,…,N), ap is the autoregressive model coefficient, j is the best lag order of the fitted model; εt is the difference between the actual value and the predicted value The error is a sequence of white noise. Where Yt represents the value of the sequence Y at time t, and the value of the Yt sequence can be used to predict the value at Yt-p time.
The corresponding equation is
An optimization problem that can be transformed into a function, let the error function be:
Assuming that the final output is an ideal model, we can get
From this we can see
At this time, each individual in the offspring population corresponds to the amount of change in the initial solution
Among avgfitness is the fitness of the current individual and avgfitness is the average fitness. The acceptance probability Pk is calculated as follows
The linear joint regression model refers to the prediction of the current value of a series based on the past values of multiple time series. This section introduces the linear joint regression model of two variables. For two time series Xt and Yt (t = 0, 1,…, N), the joint regression model is defined as follows:
In the formula, the current time Xn of Xt can be estimated by the linear combination of his money J values Xn−1,…, Xn−j and Yt money J values Yn−1,…, Yn−j, and other influence items are expressed as errors.
When Xt and Yt are independent of each other, then
Which Σ is represents the matrix determinant. The first term in the formula represents the inherent power, and the second term represents the causal power of Xt acting on Yt. Therefore, the frequency domain Granger causality from Yt to Xt is defined as
It can be seen that the Granger causality in the frequency domain is defined in terms of inherent power, not causal power. When the causal power is 0, the inherent power occupies all of the power, that is, the causal influence is 0; when the causal power increases, the proportion of the inherent power occupies all power decreases, and the causal influence increases. Similarly, the frequency domain Granger causality from Xt to Yt is:
EEG signals have nonlinear chaotic characteristics, and the corresponding characteristics of EEG signals can be extracted by analyzing its nonlinear dynamic characteristic index. At present, many researchers at home and abroad are using sample entropy to reflect the characteristics of brain waves, and most of the applications are sample entropy, wavelet entropy, approximate entropy, and other entropy parameters that can indicate the confusion of EEG indicators. Synthesize the advantages and disadvantages of the above methods and the characteristics of the test data. In this paper, the time–frequency analysis method is used to take driving time as the independent variable and the average power of each brain wave as the dependent variable to form a set of functional images to study the driver’s driving fatigue changes.
3.1 Brainwave acquisition
The experimental subjects selected drivers with a driving age of more than 3 years and no sudden illnesses to classify different roads. The parameters can be distinguished by the rugged roads, and only one variable of the road parameter is set to ensure the validity of the data. During the whole driving process, the test driver did not reach a doze state, so the delta wave was not analyzed. The drivers are in a normal state during the test, and gamma waves will not appear under normal conditions, so gamma waves are not analyzed. In simulated driving, the traffic volume of grassland roads is small, the longitudinal gradient of the linear aspect is small, the radius of the horizontal curve is large, the proportion of long straight lines is large, and the landscape environment is very monotonous. Mountain roads have small traffic volume, large linear slope changes, suitable curve radius, fewer long straight lines, and complex landscape structures. Aiming at the topography and linear structure characteristics of two different roads, combined with the research results of EEG signals by scholars at home and abroad, and the different physiological significance of signals in each EEG frequency band, this paper selects α wave, β wave, θ wave and (θ The + α)/β ratio is used as a research index to study the EEG fatigue characteristics of drivers in different road landscape environments.
3.2 Simulated driving
Since the EEG signal is easily affected by the external environment and then fluctuates, the EEG is of a smaller order of magnitude compared to the ECG and the EOG, and there will be a certain degree of OG interference signal in the EEG. Therefore, a large number of experimental studies focus on ECG indicators and eye movement indicators, and there are fewer studies and analyses using EEG indicators. Research on EEG indicators is also mostly carried out in the way of outdoor driving experiments, and does not fully consider the impact of external environmental uncertain factors on the driver, so that the driving environment of each driver cannot be unified, and the data collected is not ideal. The indoor simulation driving research method is currently a more advanced research method in this field. It has a strong correspondence between the generation, change, and deepening of driving fatigue and actual driving. Choosing simulated driving can try a higher level of fatigue driving. And the experiment is more convincing. In addition, it can ensure the safety of the test subjects. Simulated driving can truly reflect the overall driving fatigue of the driver. process. as shown in Fig. 2.
3.3 Music selection
Music has a very good effect on alleviating fatigue driving. It makes people's spirits relaxed through EEG signals. In addition, the use of linear regression statistics can better solve these problems. In order to compare the fatigue relief of different music during the driving time, we selected five categories of classical, pop, rock, jazz, and country music, and compared the brain wave changes of the driver after 1–5 h of driving, and then performed the data Denoising processing. After that, the signal is decomposed by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the main signal components are extracted, and the energy spectrum characteristics of the extracted IMF components are extracted. In addition, the experimental results were improved, and 10 sets of data from the same experiment were selected, denoising, signal decomposition, and signal components were extracted, and finally the results were obtained.
All data analysis in this article uses SPSS19.0, statistical test uses two-sided test, significance is defined as 0.05, and p < 0.05 is considered significant. The statistical results are displayed as mean ± standard deviation (x ± SD). When the test data obeys the normal distribution, the double T test is used for comparison within the group, and the independent sample T test is used for comparison between the groups. If the regular distribution is not sufficient, two independent samples and two related samples will be used for inspection.
4 Results and discussion
4.1 Brain wave comparison
We first collect the brainwaves of the driver before driving and when he is not fatigued, and get the brainwave images of the person in a normal state. We collect a 30-s brainwave imaging, as shown in Fig. 3.
Under normal conditions, the brain waves are shown in Fig. 3. It can be seen that in the non-fatigue state, the fluctuations of the brain waves have a certain range, indicating that the human state is more active, and then we will simulate the brain waves after driving for a period of time. Collect, as shown in Fig. 4.
It can be seen from Fig. 4 that before the driving time is less than 1 h, the driver's brainwave amplitude changes greatly, the maximum amplitude change is about 60, but with the driving time the change amplitude is small, the change range is 10–20. In between, this shows that as the driving time changes, the driver gradually gets tired, his brain wave changes become smaller, his brain activity decreases, showing a state of fatigue. In order to verify the effectiveness of the denoising processing algorithm, the different denoising processing results are compared. The signal-to-noise ratios of the three pre-processing methods of band-pass filtering, EMD-ICA, and VMD-ICA are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
From the data results in Table 3, it can be seen that the effect of VMD-ICA processing is better than that of EMD-ICA processing. Among them, the lowest signal-to-noise ratio is filtered.
4.2 Different music around
We first compare the driver’s brainwave changes with or without music to measure the driver’s fatigue, as shown in Fig. 5.
Through Fig. 5, comparing the brainwave changes with or without music, we can see that when there is music, the driver's brainwave amplitude does not change much, and the driver's brainwave amplitude is basically normal, and the fatigue is not high. In the absence of music, the driver's brain wave amplitude decreased after 1.5 h of driving time. After driving for more than 3 h, the brain wave amplitude basically did not change, and he was in a state of deep fatigue.
According to the relationship between brain waves and driving fatigue, the power of α wave and β wave decreases with the deepening of driving fatigue, and the power of θ wave increases with the deepening of driving fatigue. Therefore, the maximum value of α wave and β wave during driving is compared with the average value of static measurement, and the minimum value of θ wave during driving is compared with the average value of static measurement. Since the (θ + α)/β ratio is a composite of three indicators, and the static measurement data cannot be directly measured, the (θ + α)/β ratio is not compared. Comparing the static measurement values of the three kinds of brain waves of the driver with the maximum (small) value of the three kinds of brain waves during driving, the average value of each group of test static measurement data is better than the data level at the beginning of driving. Therefore, it can be considered that the static test data and the test data conform to the conventional laws, and the test data has a high degree of credibility. The specific values are shown in Table 4.
When the brain changes from the awake state to the fatigue state, the extracted rhythm wave energy ratio increases to a certain extent, which can indicate that the brain electrical signal rhythm energy ratio has a certain correlation with the fatigue state of the brain, which can be classified as a fatigue state Feature vector, but the degree of correlation between each energy ratio and fatigue state is not the same.
We compare the changes in the driver's alpha wave when there is no music while driving, as shown in Fig. 6.
It can be seen from the figure that the overall change trend of the alpha wave as a whole is a decline in uneven fluctuations. In most of the time, the average power of alpha waves when there is music is higher than the level without music. In the non-music room, the driver has no stimulation, which makes it easier for the driver to enter a deep relaxation state. The fluctuation section reflects the driver's active adjustment process when the subjectively feels the decline in operating ability. Regardless of the driver's tension and relaxation, it can be detected by the EEG signal, and the result of the EEG signal detection can also indicate the driver's fatigue level, and then the final result can be obtained.
We also analyzed the relationship between the various indicators of the driver’s EEG and the driving time in different road environments. Table 5 shows the changes in the grassland, and Table 6 shows the changes in the mountains.
It can be seen from the table that α wave and β wave are negatively correlated with time, θ wave and (α + θ)/β ratio are positively correlated with time, and positive correlation is selected from the two positive correlation indicators among the four indicators. For the ratio of (α + θ)/β with a large coefficient, β wave is selected from the negative correlation index, and the two indexes are used as the driving fatigue evaluation index.
The cumulative change of the driver's β-spread (α + θ)/β ratio is constantly accumulating, which also shows that driving fatigue has a time accumulation effect. In the overall process, the amount of change in β wave and (α + θ)/β will partially change. The comparison of the cumulative amount of change in β wave and (α + θ)/β shows that the result of fatigue accumulation on mountain roads is less than that of grassland roads. As a result, a comprehensive comparison of the two indicators shows that the degree of fatigue driving in a prairie road landscape environment is higher than that of mountain roads.
When listening to music while driving, the brain's response time is shortened when the speed of receiving and processing information is accelerated, and the decision-making and judgment ability is accelerated. The study found that the subjects' physical recovery status affects the accuracy rate. Compared with mountain roads, grassland roads have disadvantages such as unreasonable linear design, low traffic volume, and single road landscape. The driving fatigue level under grassland road conditions is higher than that under mountain road conditions, which further verifies the degree of driving fatigue and road conditions. Landscape factors are closely related. As a sensitive index to assess changes in the central nervous system, brain waves can reflect the driver’s specific mental state in real-time and sensitively during driving operations. It can also evaluate the driver’s fatigue and determine the period of time when the driver’s fatigue is high, thereby avoiding fatigue Driving, reduce the probability of traffic accidents. Of course, this article also has some shortcomings. Due to time and conditions, the number of subjects is limited, and more subjects are needed to make the results more universal. At the same time, the EEG signal is relatively weak and easy to be interfered by external noise. Therefore, some experimental results are not ideal. In the follow-up research work, more subjects can be added, and the data can be weighted and analyzed to obtain more objective and universal analysis results. Finally, this article highlights the role of music in alleviating fatigue driving, determining the degree of fatigue of fatigue driving through EEG signals, and reducing the traffic risk caused by fatigue driving.
Availability of data and materials
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
21 September 2022
This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13634-022-00922-y
Variational mode decomposition
Independent component analysis
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Wang, Q., Mu, Z. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Application of music in relief of driving fatigue based on EEG signals. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2021, 89 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13634-021-00794-8